The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

By Paul A.T. Wilson

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle







The work which is commonly known as the Saxo!i
or Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a chronological record of
important events, chiefly relating to the English race,
from the earliest period of the Christian era to the
XII. century. It is of a composite character, and has
been preserved to the present day in the form of six
more or less complete ancient MSS., some of which appear
to be independent of each other though traceable to
some common original, whilst others are apparently more
nearly related by obvious similarities. Four of these are
in the British Museum, one in the Bodleian Library at
Oxford, and another in the library of Corpus Christi
College, Cambridge. In addition to these, there is, in
the Library of Trinity College, Dublin, a copy made in
1563—4, by William Lambard, of a MS. which now exists
only in the shape of three disfigured leaves. It is one of the
Cottonian MSS. in the British Museum, some of which
were damaged or destroyed by a fire in Little Dean`s Yard,
Westminster, in the year 1731. Before its destruction
this MS. was printed by Abraham Wheloc in 1633-4;
and it is evident that, as far as it goes, it is a copy
of the Cambridge MS. These seven MSS., including the


one which is represented by the Dublin copy and Wheloc`ff
printed edition, have been distinguished as follows ; —

Ending at

1. At Cambridge .... 1070 A

2. In the British Museum . . 977 B

3. „ ;, „ . . . 1066 G

4. „ „ , . . . 1079 D

5. „ Bodleian Library (imperfect) 1154 E
b. „ British Museum (imperfect) 1058 P

. (The Dublin MS. copy ) ^ ^ ^qq^ ^ ^^^ ^y

(Wheloc`s printed copy 3

MS. A (CCCG 173) is part of the bequest of Archbishop
Parker (died 1575) to Corpus Christi College, Cambridge,
and is now generally known as the Parker MS. It is
written in many different hands, but as the entries down
to 891 are all in one script, consistent with that date, it
is not unreasonable to assume that this copy dates from
the days of Alfred the Great, to whom the initiation
of this national chronicle is without doubt to be ascribed.
1 1 is also obvious from the entries that it was written
at his royal city of Winchester, though it was at a later
date supplemented by contemporary scribes at Canterbury.
There are, moreover, many interpolations by later hands,
and notes by Joscelin, Archbishop Parker`s secretary. It
i-5 generally regarded as the standard text.

IMS. B, in the British Museum (Cott. Tib. A vi.) is all

* In Mr. Charles Plummer`s edition of " Two Sason Chronicles
parallel" the text of G is indicated by the letter A as being a copy
\jL the Cambridge MS., which he distinguishes by the symbol K.
To his introduction to those parallel texts K and E (Clarendon
Press, 18`J9) every student who requires an exhaustive description,
audlysis and comparison of all the existing texts in referred.


in one hand, and is supposed to have been copied about
the year 1000, which is not remote from the year 977, at
which it ends. The chronicle from which it was directly
or indirectly copied was associated with the monastery
of Abingdon.

MS. C, in the British Museum (Cott. Tib. B i.), is also
connected with the same monastery, and has been called
the Abingdon Chronicle. It is written in several hands,
but from the regularity of its pages it seems to have been
transcribed as a whole. It has many annotations of the
XVI. century. A peculiarity of both B and C, showing
a close connexion, is that they interpolate bodily a number
of annals (from 902 to 924) dealing mainly with the deeds
of ^thelfled, a Lady of the Mercians, generally designated
as the Mercian Register.

MS. D, in the British Museum (Cott. Tib. B iv.) is
written in several hands, and brings the chronicle down
to 1079, but a considerable portion, comprising the years
262 to 693, is missing. The lacuna has been filled by
insertions made by Joscelin from monastic records in other
versions of the Chronicle. The original MS., though by
seven or eight different hands, was all compiled in the
latter half of the XI. century, with the exception of one
late entry of 1130.* It agrees mostly with MS. C.

MS. E, in the Bodleian Library (Laud Misc. 636), was
formerly in the possession of Archbishop Laud. It extends
to the year 1154, though the last leaf is missing. The
greater part of it, to 1121, is apparently in one hand,
but the latest entries are probably contemporary with the

* This date, in the LIS., is 1080. Mr. Plummer has pointed out
that MLXXX. has been erroneously written for MCXXX.

viii PPwEFACE.

events described. Owing to the numerous entries relating
to Peterborough, it evidently came into the possession of
that monastery. Its pedigree, as traceable from the original
chronicle, diverges more than any other from that of
MS. A, with which it has therefore a considerable com-
plementary importance, for which reason Messrs. Earle
and Plummer made these two texts the groundwork of
their editions.

MS. F, in the British Museum (Cott. Dom. A viii.),
extends to 1058, but is mutilated at the end. It is a
compilation from other transcripts, and has little original
value, its most remarkable feature being that it is
bi-lingual, each entry being written in Latin as well as

MS. G, the few remains of which are in the British
Museum (Cott. Otho B xi), is now only known by the
Dublin copy and by Wheloc`s printed version. It is
practically a copy of A.

The minute and exhaustive investigation of the subject
by Mr. Plummer, from whom some of these particulars
are derived, has proved that the original chronicle estab-
lished by Alfred the Great, or any direct copy of it, is
no longer extant. MSS. A, B and C, which are practically
identical to the year 892, doubtless represent its substance
to that date, but it will be noticed by the student that
in all of these, from the middle of the eighth century to
the middle of the ninth, the events are misdated by two
or three years. This has arisen from the fact that a date
left blank in the original copy has occasionally been
inadvertently filled by the transcriber with the next
entry, and so caused a general ante-dating of the succeeding


annals. Bufc the later portions of MSS. A, C, D and E
may all be regarded as contemporary chronicles, and not
open to suspicion on chronological grounds. A complete
analytical edition in modern English, with corrected dates,
is still, and must perhaps remain, a desideratum.

The first printed edition of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
was that by Abraham Wheelock, or Wheloc, Professor of
Arabic in the University of Cambridge. His text was
compiled from MS. G (not then destroyed), with additions
from A, and was accompanied by a Latin translation.

Forty -nine years later a more complete edition, with a
Latin translation, was published by Edmund Gibson, of
Queen`s College, Oxford, afterwards Bishop of London.

The first translation into modern English, based on
Gibson`s version, was made by Miss Anna Gurney, and
privately printed at Norwich in 1819. It was a work
of great ability, but its publication was prevented by the
appearance in 1823 of a text and English translation by
Dr. James Ingram, President of Trinity College, Oxford,
who had the advantage of his predecessors in collating
al! the extant MSS.

The following translation by Dr. Giles appeared in
1847. It was based on the materials prepared under the
superintendence of Henry Petrie, formerly Keeper of the
Records in the Tower. Dr. Giles also acknowledged his
obligations to Miss Gurney `s translation, which he used
to complete the chronicle, and to Dr. Ingram`s account
of the various MSS. Mr. Petrie`s materials were, in
the meantime, used in the compilation of the first
volume of Monumenta Historica Britannica, which was
published in 1848, and gives a composite text and


translation as far as 1066. It was not carried further, as
t`le projected continuation of the work was merged in the
well-known series of records issued under the authority
of the Master of the Rolls. In this series was afterwards
(in 1861) included Mr. Thorpe`s six-text edition with a

A good translation, which was based on, and completed
that given in Monumenta Historica Britannica, by the Rev.
J. Stevenson, of Durham University, appeared in 1853.

In an edition of the Chronicle there is no satisfactory
compromise between a complete collation and what is
called a conflation of the various texts. Mr. Plummer
has, with the assistance of Mr. Thorpe`s six-text edition,
brought the former plan to as near perfection as
possible, and thereby, with his remarkably discerning
introduction and notes, earned the gratitude of all
succeeding historians and workers in the same field. For
the ordinary inquirer, a cheap and handy amalgamation
of the texts such as that which follows may still, it is
hoped, have its more commonplace uses. It appeared
originally in the same volume as the translation of Bede`s
Ecclesiastical History ; but as this has now been superseded
by Miss A. M. Sellar`s version it has been found convenient
to re-issue the Chronicle as an independent volume, and to
introduce some improvements in its form, E. B.





[The island f of Britain is eight hundred miles long and
two hundred miles broad : and here in this island are five
tongues ; English, British, Scottish, Pietish, and Latin. The
first inhabitants of this land were Britt^ns ; they came from
Armenia,! and first settled in the south of Britain. Then
befell it that Picts came from the south from Scythia, with
long sliips, not many, and first landed in North Hibernia,
and there entreated the Scots that they might there abide.
But they would not permit them, for tliey said that they
could not all abide there together. And then the Scots said,
` We may nevertheless give you counsel. V/e know another
island eastward of this, where ye may dwell if ye will, and
if any one withstand you, we will assist you, so that you may
subdue it.` Then went the Picts and subdued tliis land
northwards ; the southern part the Britons had, as we before
have said. And the Picts obtained waves for themselves of
the Scots, on this condition, that they should always choose
tb^eir royal lineage on the woman`s side ; which they have
held ever since. And then befell it in the course of years

* The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is apparently the work of many successive
hands, and extends in different copies from the time of Csesar`s invasion to
the middle of the twelfth century. As it has been repeatedly prmted, it
may suffice here to repeat, that, with the exception of the insertions placed
within brackets, the text to the year 975 is mostly taken from the MS.
designated by the letter A.; from that period to 1079 from MSS. A. C. D.
E. F. and G., and from thence to the conclusion from MS. E. : and that such
portions of the different MSS. us are concurrent with the text, but will not
conveniently admit of collation, are given separately in a smaller type.
These variations will sometimes convey the same information two or three
times over : but it has been deemed advisable to retain all of them
that the reader may hdve a more ample means of judging of tlie authority
of this invaluable national record.

f This dtscription of Britiiin is taken from Bede*s Ecclesiastical
History. — L i c l ^ ^Umorica, g


that some part of the Scots departed from Hibernia ^^itc
Britain, and conquered some portion of the land. And theu
leader was called Reoda ; from whom they are named

Sixty years before Clrist was born, Gains Julius, emperor
of the Romans, with eighty ships, sought Britain. There he
was at first distressed by a fierce battle, and a large portion
of his army was dispersed. And then he left his army to
abide among the Scots,"]* and went south into Gaul, and there
collected six hundred ships, with which he came again into
Britain. And as they first rushed together, the emperor`s
* gerrefa `J was slain : he was called Labienus. Then the
Welsh took large and sharp stakes and drove them into the
fording place of a certain river under water ; this river was
called Thames. When the Romans discovered this, then
would they not go over the ford. Then fled the Britons to
the wood-wastes, and the emperor conquered very many of
their chief cities after a great struggle, and depai-ted again
into Gaul.

Before the incarnation of Christ sixty years, Gains Julius the emperor,
first of the Romans, sought the land of Britain; and he crushed the Btittjns
in battle, and overcame them : and revertheless he was unable to gain any
empire there.

A.D. 1. Octavianus reigned fifty-six years; and in the
forty-second year of his reign Christ was born.

A. 2. The three astrologers came from the eastern parts
in order that they might worship Christ. And the children
were slain at Bethlehem, in persecution of Christ by

A. 3. This year died Herod, having stabbed himself, and
Archelaus his son succeeded to the government. And tlie
child Christ was brought back again from Egypt.

A, 4. 5. §

* Dal signifies a division or part. — Cf. Bede 1. i. c. 1.

f " This is an error, arising from the inaccurately written MSS. of
Oroaius and Bede ; where in Hyhemia and in Hibemiam occur fcr in
hiberua. The error is retained in Wheloc`s Bede."— Lnqrvm.

X "Tribune." — Ingram.

§ These blank dates are found in the MSS. of the Saxon Chronicle, and
are retained in this volume, for the sake of references which occur betweer
the MSS. where the date happeiu to be blank, and othera in which facti
ije asaigned to them.


A. 6. From the beginning of the world to tliis year, fixe
iliousand and two hundi`ed years were gone by.

A. 7.— 10.

A. n. This year Herod the son of Antipater obtaiue<2
the government of Jndea.

A. 12. Philip and Herod divided Lysia (between therui,
and Judea they divided into tetrarchies.

A. 12. This year Judea was divided into four tetrarchie».

A. 13.— 15.

A. 16. This year Tiberius succeeded to the empire.

A. 17.-25.

A. 26. This year Pilate began to rule over the Jews.

A. 27.-29.

A. 30. This year Christ was baptized ; and he converted
Peter and Andrew, and James and John and Philip, and the
twelve apostles.

A. 31. 32.

A. 33. This year Christ was crucified ; being from the
beginning of the world about five thousand two hundred and
twenty-six years.

A. 34. This year St. Paul was converted, and St. Stephen

A. 35. This year the blessed apostle Peter established a
bishop`s see in the city of Antioch.

A. 36. 37.

A. 38. This year Pilate slew himself with his OAvn hand.

A. 39. This year Caius obtained the empire.

A. 40. Matthew, in Judea, began to write his gospel.

A. 41. — 44.

A. 45. This year the blessed apostle Peter established a
bishop`s see in Rome. This year James, the brother of John,
was slain by Herod.

A. 46. This year Herod died ; he who slew James, one
year before his own death.

A. 46. This year the emperor Claudius came to Britain, and subdued
a large part of the island ; and he also added the island of Orkney to the
dominion of the Romans.

A. 47. This year Claudius, second of the Roman kings,
sought the land of Britain, and brought under his power the
greater part of the island, and also subjected the Orkney
Islands to the dominion of the Romans. This war he

B 2


effected in the fourth year of his reign : and in the same
year was the great famine in Syria, which was foretold in
the Acts of the Apostles through Agabus the f^rophet. Then
Nero succeeded to the empire after ClaufUus : he nearly lost
the island of Britain through his cowardice. Mark the
Evangelist begins to write the gospel in Egypt.

A. 47. This was in the fourth year of his reign, and in this same year
was the great famine in Syria which Luke speaks of in the book called
` Actus Apostolorum.`

A. 47. This year Claudius, king of tke Romans, went with an army into
Britain, and subdued the island, and subjected all the Picts and Welsh to
the rule of the Romans.

A. 48. In this year there was a very severe famine.

A. 49. This year Nero began to reign.

A. 50. This year Paul was sent in bonds to Rome,

A. 5L— 61

A. 62. This year James, the brother of our Lord, suffered

A. 63. This year Mark the Evangelist died.

A. 64.-68.

A. 69. This year Peter and Paul suffered martyrdom.

A, 69. Thi-i year Peter suffered on the cross, and Paul was slain

A. 70. This year Vespasian obtained the empire.

A. 71. This year Titus, the son of Vespasian, slew on^
hundred and eleven thousand Jews in Jerusalem.

A. 72.— 80.

A. 81. This year Titus succeeded to the empire, after
Vespasian ; he who said that he had lost the day on which
he had done no good.

A. 82. 83.

A. 84. This year Domitian, the brother of Titus, suc-
ceeded to the empire.

A. 84. This year John the Apostle wrote the book which is called

A. 85. 86.

A. 87. This year John the Evangelist wrote the boos of
the Apocalypse in tl>e island of Patmos.

A. 88.-99.

A. 100. This* year Simon the apostle, the kinsman of
Christ was crucified, and John the Evangelist rcflt^Q ir
death on that day at Ephcsus.


A. lOL Tills year pope Clement died.

A. 102.— 109.

A. 110. This year Ignatius tlie bishop suffered martyrdom

A. 111.— 115.

A. 116. This year Adrian the emperor began to reign.

A. 117.— 136.

A. 137. This year Antoninus began to reign.

A. 138.-144.

A. 145. This year Marcus Antoninus and Aurelius his
brother succeeded to the empire.

A. 146.— 166.

A. 167. This year Eleutherius obtained the bishopric of
Rome, and held it in great glory for twelve years.* To him
Lucius, king of Britain, sent letters praying that he might be
made a Christian : and he fulfilled that he requested. And
they afterwards continued in the right faith till the reign of

A. 167. This year Eleutherius succeeded to the popedom, and held it
fifteen years ; and in the same year Lucius, king of the Britons, sent and
begged baptism of him. And he soon sent it him ; and they continued iti
the true faith until the time of Diocletian.

A. 168.— 187.

A. 188. This year Severus succeeded to the empire, and
went with an army into Britain, and subdued a great part of
the island by battle ; and then, for the protection of the
Britons, he built a rampart of turf, and a broad wall thereon,
from sea to sea. He reigned seventeen years, and then
ended his days at York. His son Bassianus succeeded to the
empire : another son of his was called Geta ; he died.

A. 190.— 198.

A. 199. In this year the Holy-rood f was found.

A. 200. Two hundred years.

A. 201.— 285.

A. 286. This year St. Alban the martyr suffered.

* According to Muratori, Eleutherius presided from A. 170 to A. 185.

+ " Those writers who mention this grand discovery of the holy cross, by
Helena the mother of Constantine, disagree so much hi their chronology,
that it is a vain attempt to reconcile them to truth or to each other. This
and the other notices of ecclesiastical matters, whether Latin or Saxon,
from the yeax 190 to the yefir 380 of the Laud MS. and 381 of the
printed Chronicle, may be safely considered as interpolations, probabl*
poeterior to the Norman Conquest." — Ingram.


A. 287.-299.

A. 300. Three hundred years.

A. 301.— 342.

A. 343. This year S. Nicolas died.

A. 344.-378.

A. 379. This year Gratian succeeded to the empire.

A. 380.

A. 381. This year Maximus the emperor obtained the
empire ; he was born in the land of Britain, and went thence
into Gaul. And he there slew the emperor Gratian, and
drove his brother, who was called Valentinian, out of the
country. And Valentinian afterwards gathered an army and
slew Maximus, and obtained the empire. In these days the
heresy of Pelagius arose throughout the world.

A. 382.— 408.

A. 409. This year the Goths took the city of Rome by
storm, and after this the Romans never ruled in Britain ; and
this was about eleven hundred and ten years after it had been
built. Altogether they ruled in Britain four hundred and
seventy years since Caius Julius first sought the land.

A. 410.— 417.

A. 418. This year the Romans collected all the treasures
that were in Britain, and some they hid in the earth, so that
no one has since been able to find them ; and some they
carried with them into Gaul.

A. 419.— 422.

A. 423. This year Theodosius the younger succeeded to
tlie empire.

A. 424. — 429.

A. 430. This year Palladius * the bishop was sent to the
Scots by pope Celestinus, that he might confirm their faitli.

A. 430. This year Patrick was sent by pope Celestine to preach
baptism to the Scots.

A. 431.— 442.

A. 443. This year the Britons sent over sea to Rome, and
begged for help against the Picts ; but they had none, because
they were themselves warring against Attila, king of the

" Pallad:\!s and Patricius have been sometimes confoimded together*
Cou version oi the Scots of Ireland." — Lngr^m.


Huns. And then they sent to the Angles, and entreated th?
like of the ethelings of the Angles.

A. 444. This year St. Martin died.

A. 445. — 447.

A. 448. This year John tlie Baptist revealed his head to
two monks, who eame from the east to offer up tlieir prayers
at Jerusalem, on the spot which was formerly Herod`s

A. 449. This year Martianus and Valentinus succeeded
to the empire, and reigned seven years. And in their days
Hengist and Horsa, invited by Vortigern king of the
Britons, landed in Britain on the shore which is called
Wippidsfleet ; at first in aid of the Britons, but afterwards
they fought against them. King Vortigern gave them land
in the south-east of this country, on condition that they
should fight against the Picts. Then they fought against the
Picts, and had the victory wheresoever they came. They
then sent to the Angles ; desired a larger force to be sent,
and caused them to be told the worthlessness of the Britons,
and the excellencies of the land. Then they soon sent
thither a larger force in aid of the others. At that time
there came men from three tribes in Germany ; from the
Old- Saxons, from the Angles, from the Jutes. From the
Jutes came the Kentish-men and the Wip-htwarians, that is,
the tribe which now dwells in Wight, and that race among
the West- Saxons which is still called the race of Jutes.
From the Old- Saxons came the men of Essex and Sussex
and Wessex. From Anglia, which has ever since remained
waste betwixt the Jutes and Saxons, came the men of East
Anglia, Middle Anglia, Mercia, and all North-humbria.
Their leaders were two brothers, Hengist and Horsa : they
were the sons of Wihtgils ; Wihtgils son of Witta, Witta of
Wecta, Wecta of Woden : from this Woden sprang all our
royal families, and those of the South-humbrians also.

A, 449. And in their days Vortigern invited the A nirles thither, and
tliey came to Britain in three ceols, at the place caJled Wippidsfleet:

A. 450.— 454.

A. 455. This year Hengist and Horsa fought against king
Vortigena at the place which is called jEgels-thre[>,
( Aylesford,] and his brother Horsa was there slain, and aftei
tlifit Hengist obtained the kingdoin and -/Esc his son.


A. 456. This year Hengist and iE-c slew four troops of
Batons with the edge of the sword, in the place which is
naraed Creccanford, [Crayford].*

Ac 457. This year Hengist and -^sc his son fought
against the Britons at the place which is called Crecganford,
fCrayford,] and there slew four thousand men ; and the
Britons then forsook Kent, and in great terror fled to

A. 458.-464.

A. 465. This year Hengist and ^sc fought against the
Welsh near Wippidsfleet, [Ebbsfleet?] and there slew twelve
Welsh ealdormen, and one of their own thanes was slain
there, whose name was Wipped.

A. 466. — 472.

A. 473. This year Hengist and ^sc fought against the
Welsh, and took spoils innumerable ; and the Welsh fled
from the Angles like fire.

A. 474.-476.

A. 477. This year ^EUa, and his three sons, Cymen, and
Wlencing, and Cissa, came to the land of Britain with three
ships, at a place which is named Cymenes-ora, and there
slew many Welsh, and some they drove in fliglit into the
wood that is named Andreds-lea.

A. 478.— 481.

A. 482. This year the blessed abbat Benedict, by the
glory of his miracles, shone in this world, as the blessed
Gregory relates in his book of Dialogues.

A. 483. 484.

A. 485. Tliis year iEUa fought against the Welsh near
the bank of Mearcraedsburn.

A. 486. 487.

A. 488. This year JE,sg succeeded to the kingdom, and
was king of the Kentish-men twenty-four years.

A. 489. 490.

A. 491. This year iEUa and Cissa besieged Andreds-
cester, and slew ail that dwelt therein, so that not a single
Briton was there left.

* The positions usually a8sip:ned to various places mentioned in the
f<* portion of the Chronicle, are often very uncertain, depending chiefly
on a supposed or real similarity of names. Where these, however, appear
sufficiently probable, they are placed between brackets if otherwiae? a
^UAre IB added.


A 492.-494.

A. 495. This year two ealdormen came to Britain, C.M-dic
and Cynric his son, with five ships, at the place whi`:h is
called Cerclics-ore, and the same day they fbught against the

A. 496.-500.

A. 501. This year Port, and his two sons Bieda and
IMaBgla, came to Britain with two ships, at a place whicjli is
called Portsmouth, and they soon effected a landing, and they
there slew a young British man of high nobility.

A. 502.— 507.

A. 508. This year Cerdic and Cynric slew a British king,
whose name was Natan-leod, and five thousand men w`th
him. After that the country was named Natan-lea, as far
Cerdicsford, [Cliarford.]

A. 509. Tliis yearf St. Benedict the abhat, father of all
monks, went to heaven.

A. 510.— 513.

A. 514. This year the West- Saxons came to Britain
with three ships, at the place which is called Cerdic`s-ore,
and Stuf and Whitgar fought against the Britons, and put
tliem to flight.

A. 515.-518.

A. 519. This year Cerdic and Cynric obtained the kin,sr-
dom of the West- Saxons ; and the same year they fouglit
against the Britons where it is now named Cerdicsford.
And from that time forth the royal offspring of the West-
Saxons reigned.

A. 520.-526.

A. 527. This year Cerdic and Cynric fought against the
Bntons at the place which is called Cerdic`s-lea.

A. 528. 529.

A. 530. This year Cerdic and Cynric conquered the
island of Wight, and slew many men at Whit-garas-byrg,
[Carisbrooke, in Wight.``

A 531.— 533.

A. 534. Tliis year Cerdic, the first king of the V/est
Saxons, died, and Cynric his son succeeded to the kingdoni,

* Gibson here introduced into the text a long genealogy, which, as I)f
Ingram observes : "is not justified by a single MS."
f Benedict died, according to Mabillon, in 54`6


and reigned from that time twenty-six jears ; and they gave
the whole island of Wight to their two nephews, Stuf and

A. 535.— 537.

A. 538. This year, fourteen days before the Kalends of
March, the sun was eclipsed from early morning till nine in
the forenoon.

A. 539.

A. 540. This year the sun was eclipsed on the twelfth
before the Kalen-ds of July, and the stars showed themselves
full-nigh half an hour after nine in the forenoon.

A. 541.— 543.

A. 544. This year Wihtgar died, and they buried him in
Wibt-gara-byrg. [Carisbrooke.]

A. 545. 546.

A. 547. This year Ida began to reign, from whom arose
the royal race of North-humbria ; and he reigned twelve
years, and built Bambrough, which was at iSirst enclosed by
a hedge, and afterwards by a wall. Ida was the son of
Eoppa, Eoppa of Esa, Esa of Ingwi, Ingwi of Angenwit,
Angenwit of Aloe, Aloe ot Benoc, Benoc of Brond, Brond
of Beldeg, Beldeg of Woden, Woden of Frithowald, Fritho-
wald of Frithuwulf, Frithuwulf of Finn, Finn of Godwulf,
Godwulf of Geat.

A. 548.— 551.

A. 552. This year Cynric fought against the Britons at
the place which is called Searo-byrig [Old Sarum], and he
put the Britons to flight. Cerdic was Cynric`s father ,
Cerdic was the son of Elesa, Elesa of Esla, Esla of Gewis,
Gewis of Wig, W^ig of Freawin, Freawin of Frithogar, Fri-
thogar of Brond, Brond of Beldeg, Beldeg of Woden. And
Ethelbert, the son of Ermenric was born ; and in the thir-
tieth year of his reign he received baptism, the first of the
kings in Britain.

A. 553. — 555.

A. 556. This year Cynric and Ceawlin fought against the
Britons at Berin-Byrig, [Banbury ?]

A. 557.-559.

A. 560. This year Ceawlin succeeded to the kingdom of
the West-Saxons, and Ida being dead, Alia succeeded to the
Idngdom of North-humbria, each of whom reigned tliirty


years. Alia was the son of Iff, Iff of Usfrey, Usfrey of
Wilgis, Wilgis of Westerfalcon, Westerfalcon of Seal`owl.
Seafowl of Sebbald, Sebbald of Sigeat, Sigeat of Swadd,
Swadd of Sygar, Sygar of Waddy, Waddy of Woden^
Woden of Frithuwulf.

A. 561—564.

A. 561). This year Ethelbert* succeeded to the kingdom
of th3 Kentish-men, and held it fifty-three years. In hig
days the holy pope Gregory sent us baptism, that was in the
two and thirtieth year of his reign : and Columba, a mass-
priest, came to the Picts, and converted them to the faitli of
Christ : they are dwellers by the northern mountains. And
their king gave liim the island which is called li [lona] :
therein are five hides of land, as men say. There Columba
built a monastery, and he was abbat there thirty-seven years,
and there he died when he was seventy-two years old. His
successors still have the place. The Southern Picts had
been baptized long before: bishop Ninia, who had been in-
structed at Rome, had preached baptism to them, whose
church and his monastery is at Whitherne, consecrated in the
name of St. Martin : there he resteth, with many holy men.
Now in li there must ever be an abbat, and not a bishop ;
and all the Scottish bishops ought to be subject to him, be-
cause Columba was an abbat and not a bishop.

A. 565. This year Columba the presbyter came from the Scots among
the Britons, to instruct the Picts, and he built a monastery in the island of

A. 566. 567.

A. 568. This year Ceawlin, and Cutha, Ceawlin`s brother,
fought against Ethelbert, and drove him into Kent, and they
killed two ealdormen at Wibban-dune [Wimbledon], f Oslaf
and Cnebba.

A. 569. 570.

A. 571. This year Cuthulf fought against the Britons
at Bedcanford [Bedford], and took four towns, Lygean-birg
[Lenbury], and iEgeles-birg [Aylesbury], and Baenesington
[Benson], and Egonesham [Eynsham] ; and the same year
he died. Cutha was CeawHn`s brother.

Bedu [ii. 5,] says Ethelbert died on February 23, a.d. 616, after a
rei^Ti of fifty-six years. This would make it out that he succeeded to the
thrane in a.d. 660. f Or Worplesdon, Surrey.


A. 572.-576.

A. 577. This year CutliAvine and Ceawlin fought against
the Britons, and they slew three kings, Comail, and Condi-
dan, and P^arinmeail, at the place wliich is called Deorham
[Derham ?], and took three cities from them, Gloucester
and Cirencester, and Bath.

A. 578.-582.

A. 583. This year Mauricius succeeded to the empire of
the Romans.

A. 584. This year Ceawlin and Cutha fought against the
Britons at the place whi<;h is called Fethan-lea, [Frethern ?]
and there was Cutha slain ; and Ceawlin took many towns,
and spoils innumerable ; and wrathful he thence returned to
his own.

A. 585.-587.

A. 588. This year King ^lle died, and Ethelric reigr.ed
after him five years.

A. 589.

590. At this period Ceol reigned five years.

59 L Tins year in Britain was a great slaughter in battle
at Woddesbeorg [Wemborow ?], and Ceawlin was expelled.

A. 592. Tliis year Gregory succeeded to the popedom in

A. 593. This year Ceawlin, and Cwichelm, and Crida,
perished ; and Ethelfrith succeeded to the kingdom of the
North-humbrians ; he was the son of JEthelric, Ethelric of

A. 594. 595.

A. 596. This year Pope Gregory sent Augustine to Britain,
with a great many monks, who preached the word of God to
the nation of the Angles.

A. 597. This year Ceolwulf began to reign over the
West- Saxons ; and he fought and contended incessantly
against either the Angles, or the Welsh, or the Picts, or the
Scots. He was the son of Cutha, Cutha of Cynric, Cynric
of Cerdic, Cerdic of Elesa, Elesa of Esla, Esla of Gewis,
Gewis of Wig, Wig of Frea\^`^ne, Freawine of Frithogar,
Frithogar of Brond, Brond of Beldeg Beldeg of Woden.
Tliis year Augustine and his companions came to the land
of the Angles.

A. 598.— €0a


A. 601. This year Pope Grejrory sent a pall to Arch-
bij^liop Augustine in Britain, and also a great many religioii.^
teaciiers to assist him, and amongst them was Paulinas the
bishop, who afterwards converted Edwin, king of the North-
humbrians, to baptism.

A. 602.

A. 603. This year there was a battle at Egesanstane.*

A. 603. This year iEthan, king of the Scots, fought against the
Dalreods and against Ethelfrith king of the North-humbrians, at
Dsegsanstane [Dawston?], and they slew almost all his army. There
Theodbjild, Ethelfrith`s brother, was slain with all his band. Since then
no king of the Scots has dared to lead an army against this nation.
Hering, the son of Hussa, led the enemy thither.

A. 604. This year the East-Saxons received the faith and
oaptism under King Sebert and Bishop Mellitus.

A. 604. This year Augustine consecrated two bishops, Mellitus and
Justus. He sent Mellitus to preach baptism to the East-Saxons, whose
king was called S`c I ejt son of Ricole, the sister of Ethelljcrt, and
whom Ethelbert had there appointed king. And .Ethelbert gfive
Mellitus a bishop`s see in London, and to Justus he gave Rochester, which
is twenty- four miles from Canterbury.

A. 605.

A. 606. This year Pope Gregory died, about ten years
after he had sent us baptism ; his father was called Gordiini,
and his mother Silvia.

A. 607. This year Ceolwulf fought against the South-
Saxons. And this year Ethelfrith led his army to Chester,
and there slew numberless Welshmen : and so was fulfilled
the prophecy of Augustine, wherein he saith, ` If the Welsh
will not be at peace with us, they shall perish at the hands
of the Saxons.` There also were slain two hundred priests,
who came to pray for the army of the Welsh : their ealdor
was called Scromail [Brocmaii], who with some fifty escaped

A, 608.— 610.

A. 611. This year Cynegife succeeded to the kingdom of
the West- Saxons, and held it thirty-one years. Cynegils
was the son of Ceol, Ceol of Cutha, Cutha of Cynric.

A. 612. 613.

A. 614. This year Cynegils and Cuichelm fought at

See Bede`8 Eccl. ilist. lib. I c. 34.


Beandune* [Bampton ?"], and slew two thousand and sixty-
live Welshmen.

A. 615

A. 616. This year Ethelb^rt, king of the Kentish-mer,
died ; he was the first English king who received baptism.,
and he was the son of Eormenric ; he reigned fifty-si?
years, and from the beginning of the world to this same
year five thousand eight hundred years were gone by ; and
after him Eadbald his son succeeded to the kingdom ; he for-
sook his baptismal vow, and lived after the manner of the
heathens, so that he had his father`s widow to wife. Then
Laurentius, who was archbishop of Kent, was minded that
he would go southwards over the sea, and leave it entirely.
But the apostle Peter came to him by night and scourged
him sorely, because he wished thus to forsake the flock oi
God, and commanded him to go to the king and preach the
true faith to him ; and he did so, and the king was con-
verted and was baptized. Li this king`s days Laurentius
who was archbishop of Kent after Augustine, died, and was
buried beside Augustine on the 4th Non. Feb. After him
Melhtus, who formerly had been bishop of London, suc-
ceeded to the archbishopric : then the men of London, where
Mellitus had been formerly, became heathens (again). And
in about five years, during the reign of Eadbald, Mellitus
departed to Christ. Then after him Justus succeeded to the
archbishopric ; and he consecrated Romanus to Rochester,
where formerly himself had been bishop.

A. 616. In that time Laurentius was archbishop, and for the sorrow-
fulness which he had on account of the king`s unbelief he was minded to
forsake this country entirely, and go over sea ; but St. Peter the apos-
tle scourged him sorely one night, because he wished thus to forsake the
flock of God, and commanded him to teach boldly the true faith to tlie
king ; and he did so, and the king turned to the right (faith). In the days
of this same king, Eadbald, this Laurentius died. The holy Augustine,
while yet in sound health, ordained him bishop, in order that the community of Christ, which was yet new in England, should not after his decease
be at any time without an archbishop. After him Mellitus, who had been
previously bishop of London, succeeded to the archbishopric. And witli-
in five years of the decease of Laurentius, while Eadbald still reigned,
Mellitus depiuted to Christ.

* This is more likely to be Bampton in Oxfordshire, than Bampton in
Devonshire, which is by far too remote to admit the supposition that th«
Ikouttie in queation waa fought there.


A. 617. This year Ethelfrid king of tlie North-hum-
brians was slain by Redwald king of the East-Angles, and
Edwin the son of Alia succeeded to the kingdom, and
subdued all Britain, the Kentish-men alone excepted. And he
drove out the ethelings, sons of Ethelfrid ; that is to say,
fii-st Eanfrid, Oswald, and Oswy, Oslac, Oswudu, Oslai`,
and Offa.

A. 618.

A. 619. This year archbishop Laurentius died.

A. 620.— 623.

A. 624. This year archbishop Mellitus died.

A. 625. This year Paulinus was ordained bishop of the
North-humbrians by archbishop Justus on the xn. Kalends
of August.

A. 625. This year archbishop Justus consecrated Paulinus bishop of
tlie North-humbrians.

A. 626. This year Eumer came from Cuichelm king ot
the West- Saxons, thinking to stab king Edwin. But he
stabbed Lilla his thane, and Forthhere, and wounded tlie
king. And on the same night a daughter was born to Edwin : she was called Eanfled. Then the king made a vow
to Paulinus that he would give his daughter to God, if he
would obtain of God that he might kill his foe who had sent
the assassin. And he then went with an army against the
West- Saxons, and there killed five kings, and slew a great
number of the people. And at Pentecost Paulinus baptized
his daughter with twelve others. And within a twelvemonth
the king and all liis court were baptized at Easter ; that year
Easter fell on the second before the Ides of April. This was
done at York, where he first ordered a church to be built of
wood, which was consecrated in the name of St. Peter.
There the king gave Paulinus a bishop`s see, and there he
afterwards commanded a larger church to be built of stone.
And this year Penda succeeded to th( kingdom [Mercia], and
reigned thirty years ; and he was fifty years (old) when he succeeded to the kingdom. Penda was the son of Pybba, Pybba cf
Creoda, Creoda of Cynewald, Cynewald of Cnebba, Cnebba
of Icel, Icel of Eomaer, Eomaer of Angeltheow, Angeltlieow
sf Offa, Offa of Waermund, Waermund of Wihtlseg, Wihtlaeg
of Woden.

A 627. This year king Edwin was baptized with hia


people by Paulinus at Easter. And this Paiilinus also
preached baptism in Lindsey, where the first who believed
was a certain great man called Blecca, with all liis followers.
And in this time Honorias, who sent Paulinus his pall,
succeeded to the popedom after Boniface. And archbislu^p
Justus died on the fourtli before the Ides of November, and
Honorius was consecrated archbishop of Canterbury by
Paulinus at Lincoln. And to this Honorius the pope also
sent a pall : and he sent a letter to the Scots, desiring that
tliey should turn to the right Easter.

A. 627. This year, at Easter, Paulinus baptized Edwin king of the
Noith-humbrians, with his jjeople : and earlier within the same year, at
Pentecost, he had baptized Eanfled daughter of the same king.

A. 628. This year Cynegils and Cuichelm fought against
Penda at Cirencester ; and then made a treaty.

A. 629.— 631.

A. 632. Tliis year Eorpwald was baptized.

A. 633. This year king Edwin was slain by Cadwalla and
Penda at Heathfield [Hatfield Chase ?] on the second before
the Ides of October, and he reigned seventeen years ; and his
son Osfrid was also slain with liim. And after that went
Cadwalla and Penda and laid waste the whole country of the
North-humbrians. When Paulinus saw that, he took
Ethelberga, Edwin`s widow, and departed in a ship to
Kent. And Eadbald and Honorius received him very
honourably, and gave him a bishop`s see in Rochester ; and
he dwelt there till his end.

A. 634. Tliis year Osric, whom Paulinus had formerly
baptized, succeeded to the kingdom of Deira ; he was the son of
Elfric, Edwin`s uncle. And Eanfrid the son of Ethelfrid
Fiicceeded to Bernicia. And this year also bishop Birinus
lirst preached baptism to the West-Saxons under king
Cynegils. Birinus came thither by command of Honorius
the pope, and he there was bishop until his life`s end. And
tliis year also Oswald succeeded to the kingdom of the
North-humbrians, and he reigned nine years ; the ninth
being numbered to him because of the heathenism which
tliey practised who reigned over them the one year between
Lini and Edwin.

A. CZ5. This year king Cynegils was baptized by Birinus


the bishop, at Dorchester, and Oswald king of tlie North
hurabrians was his godfixther.

A. 6:^6. This year king Cuichelm was baptized at
Dorchest(?r, and the same year he died. And bishop
Felix pn^ached the faith of Christ to the Epst- Angles.

A. 637. 638

A. 639. This year Birinus baptized king Cuthred at
Dorchester, and received him as his (god) son.

A. 640. This year Eadbald, king of the Kentish-men,
died, and he reigned twenty-five years. He had two sons,
l`>rme-nred and Earconbert, and Earconbert reigned there
after his father. He overtlii^ew all idolatry in his kingdom,
and was the first of the English kings who established the
Easter-fast. His daughter was called Earcongota, a holy
woman and a wondrous person, whose mother was Sexberfr:\,
daughter of Anna, king of the East- Angles. And Ermeui-i^d
begot two sons, who afterwards were martyred by Thunner.

A. 641.

A. 642. This year Oswald, king of the North-humbrians,
was slain by Penda and the South-humbrians at Maserfeld
on the Nones of August,* and his body was buried at Bardney.
His sanctity and liis miracles were afterwards manifested in
various ways beyond this island, and his hands are at
Bambrough, uncorrupted. And the same year that Oswald
was slain, Oswy his brother succeeded to the kingdom of
the North-humbrians, and he reigned two less (than) thirty

A. 643. This year Ken walk succeeded to the kingdom of
the West- Saxons, and held it thirty-one years ; and Kenwalk
commanded the old church at Winchester to be built in the
name of St. Peter : and he was the son of Cynegils.

A. 644. Tills year Paulinus died, on the sixth before the
Ides of October ; f he was first archbishop of York, and after-
wards at Rochester. He Avas bishop one less (than) twenty
years, and two months and twenty-one days. And this year
Oswin`s uncle`s son, J the son of Osric, succeeded to the
kingdom of Deira, and reigned seven years.

The 5th of Aus^st. t The 10th of October.

X This IS a})pareiUl}` corrupt, auOwic, Edwin`s uncle`s son.` See B«de, iii. I, and above An. 6S4,


A. 645. This vear king Kenwalk was driven out of h`ls

kingdom bj king Penda.

A. 646. This year king Kenwalk was baptized.

A. 647.

A. 648. Tliis year Kenwalk gave Cuthred, his kinsman
three thousand hides of land by Ashdown, [Aston ?] Cutln> d
was the son of Cuichebii, Cuichelm of Cynegils. This year
the minster was built at Winchester, which king Kenwalk
caused to be made, and hallowed in the name of 8t. Peter.

A. 649.

A. 6.50. This year Agilbert, a native of Gaul, obtained
the bishopric of the West- Saxons after Birinus the Romish

A. 650. This year Birinus the bishop died, and Agilbert the French-
man was ordained.

A. 650. This year king Oswy ordered king Oswin to
be slain, on the tliirteenth before the Kal. of September ; and
about twelve days after this bishop Aidan died, on the
second before the Kal. of September.

A. 651.

A. 652. This year Kenwalk fought at Bradford on the Avon.

A. 653. This year the Middle-Saxons, under Peada the
ealdorman, received the true faith.

A. 654. This year king Anna was slain, and Botolph began
to build a minster at Ycean-ho [Boston ?]. And this year
arclibishop Honorius died, on the second before the Kalends
of October.

A. 655. This year king Oswy slew king Penda at
Winwidfield, and tliirty men of royal race ^\^th him, and
some of them were kings, among whom was Ethelhere,
brother of Anna, king of the East Angles. And the
Mercians became Christians. From the beginning of the
world to this time five thousand eight hundred and fifty
years were agone ; and Peada the son of Penda succeeded to
the kingdom of the Mercians.

*In his time he and Oswy the brother of king Oswald came
together, and agreed that tliey would rear a monastery to the
glory of Christ and the honour of St. Peter. And they did
so, and named it * Medeshamstede` [Peterborough], because

This is the first of many Lite additions to the Chronicle concernin>j
the monastery of Peterborough. They occur in only one of the MSS.


there is a wliirpool at this place, which is called MeadswelL
And they began the foundations and wrought thereon, and
then committed it to a monk who was called Sexwulf. Ha
was greatly God`s friend, and all the country loved him, and
he was very nobly born, and rich in a worldly sense ; but he
is now much richer, being with Christ. And king Peada
reigned no long time, for he was betrayed by his own wife
at Kaster.

This year Ithamar bishop of Rochester consecrated Deus-
dedit to the see of Canterbury on the seventh before the Ka-
lends of April.

A. 656.

A. 657. This year Peada died, and Wulfhere the son of
Penda succeeded to the kingdom of the Mercians.

In liis time the abbacy of Medeshamstede, which his
brother had begun, waxed very rich. The king favoured it
much for the love of his brother Peada, and for the love of
Oswy his brother by baptism, and for the love of abbat
Sexwulf. And he said that he would dignify and honour it,
and this by the counsel of Ethelred and Merwal his
brothers, and Kyneburg and Kyneswith his sisters, and by
the counsel of the archbishop, who was called Deus-dedit,
and by the counsel of all his witan, both clergy and laity,
who were in his kingdom ; and he did so.

Then the king sent after the abbat that he should come to
him with all speed ; and he did so. Then the king said to
the abbat, ` Lo ! I have sent for thee, beloved Sexwulf, for the
behoof of my soul, and I will plainly tell thee for why. My
brother Peada and my dear friend Oswy began a monastery
to the glory of Christ and St. Peter. But my brother, as it
has pleased Christ, is departed this life, and lo I my prayer
to thee is, beloved friend, that they work diligently on the
work, and I will find thee gold and silver, land and
possessions, and all that behoveth thereto.` Then the abbat
went home and began to build ; and he so sped, by the grace
of Christ, that in a few years the monastery was ready
When the king heard that said, he was very glad : he bade
send throughout the nation after all his thanes, after the
archbishop, and after the bishops, and after his eai-ls, and
after all who loved God, that they should come to him : and
hfi set a day on which the monastery should be hallowed.

c 2


At tlie hallowing of the monastery king Wulfhere was
present, and liis brother Etheh-ed, and liis sisters Kyneburg
and Kyneswith. And Deus-dedit archbishop of Canterbury
hallowed the monastery, and Ithamar bishop of Rochester,
and the bishop of London, who was called Wini, and the
bishop of the Mercians, who was called Jaruman, and bishop
Tuda. And there was Wilfrid the priest, who was afterwards
a bishop : and all his thanes who were witliin his kingdom
were there.

When the monastery had been hallowed in the name of
St. Peter, St. Paul, and St. Andrew, then the king stood up
before all his thanes, and said with a clear voice, ` Thanked
be the high Almighty God for the worthy deed which here
is done, and I ^vill tliis day do honour to Christ and St.
l^eter ; and I desire that ye all assent to my words : I,
Wulfhere, do this day give to St. Peter and abbat Sexwulf, and
the monks of the monastery, these lands, and these waters,
and meres, and fens, and wears, and all the lands which lie
thereabout, which are of my kingdom, freely, so that none
but the abbat and the monks shall have a^y claim upon
them. This is the grant. From Medeshamstede to North-
borough, and thence to the place which is called Foleys, and
thence all the fen straight to Esendic, and from Esendic to
the place which is called Fethermouth, and thence along
the straight way ten miles to Ugdike, and thence to
Rag^vell, and from Ragwell five miles to the straight
stream which goeth to Elm and to Wisbeach, and thence
about three miles to Trokenholt, and from Trokenholt
straight through all the fen to Derworth which is twenty
miles long, and thence to Great Cross, and from Great Cross
through a clear water called Bradney, and thence six miles
to Paxlade, atid thence onward through all the meres and
fens which lie toward Huntingdon-port, and these meres and
lakes, Shelfermere and Wittleseymere, and all the others whieJi
lie thereabout, with the land and the houses which are on the
east-half of Shelfermere, and from thence all the fens to Medes-
hamstede, and from Medeshamstede to Welmsford, and from
Welmsibrd to Clive, and thence to Easton, and from Easton
to Stamford, and from Stamford even as the water runneth
to the aforesaid North-borougli.` These are the lands and the
fens which the king gave to St. Peter`s monastery.


Then said the king, ` Tliis gi.`i is little ; but it is my will

tliat they shall hold it so royally and so freely that neither
geld nor tribute be taken from it, except for the monks alone.
And thus free I will make this minster, that it be sul)ject to
Rome alone ; and here it is my will that all of us who are
unable to go to Rome shall visit St. Peter.`

While he was saying these Avords, the abbat desired of
liim that he would grant him what he should desire of him :
and the king granted it. *I have here `godefrihte`* monks
who wish to spend their lives as anchorites, if they knew
where. And there is an island here, which is called
Anchorets-isle, and my desire is, that we might build a
, minster there to the glory of St, Mary, so that those may
dwell therein who wish to lead a life of peace and rest.`

Then the king answered, and said thus : ` Behold, Sexwulf,
lo ! not only that one which thou hast desired, but all things
which I know thee to desire on our Lord`s behalf, I thus
approve and grant. And I beg of thee, my brother
Ethelred, and my sisters Kyneburg and Kyneswith, that ye
be witnesses for your souls` redemption, and that ye write it
with your fingers. And I beg all those who come after me,
be they my sons, be they my brothers, or kings that come
after me, that our gift may stand, even as they would be
partakers of the life eternal, and would escape everlasting
torment. Whosoever shall take from this our gift, or the
gifts of other good men, may the heavenly gateward take
from him in the kingdom of heaven ; and whosoever will
increase it, may the heavenly gateward increase (his state) in
the kingdom of heaven.`

These are the witnesses Avho were there, who subscribed
i<- with their fingers on the cross of Christ, and assented to it
with their tongues. King Wulfhere was the first who
confirmed it by word, and afterwards subscribed it with his
fingers on the cross of Christ ; and said thus : * I, king
Wulfhere, with the kings, and earls, and dukes, and thanes,
the witnesses of my gift, do confirm it before the archbishop
Deus-dedit with the cross of Christ, t^^ `And I, Oswy king
jf the North-humbrians, the friend of this monastery and of
abbat Sexwulf, approve of it with the cross of Christ *

* This word is re: dered by Lye, " God-fearing," and by Ingram, siirpljr


And I, k^ng Sighere, grant it with the cross of Christ.

* And I, king Sibbi, subscribe it with the cross of Christ.

* A jd I, I`]thehred, the knig`s brother, grant it with the cross
of Christ >J< * ` And we, the king`s sisters, Kyneburg and
Kyne»with, we approve it. * And I, Deus-dedit
ari`hbishop of Canterbury, grant it. ^J* ` After that, all the
others who were there assented to it with the cross of
Christ.*^ They were by name Ithamar bishop of Rochester,
and Wini bishop of London, and Jaruman who was bisliop
of the Mercians, and bishop Tuda, and Wilfrid the priest,
who was afterwards bishop, and Eappa the priest, whom king
Wulf here sent to preach Christianity in the Isle of Wiglit, and
abbat Sexwulf, and Immine the ealdorman, and Edbert the
ealdorman, and Herefrid the ealdorman, and Wilbert the
ealdorman, and Abon the ealdorman, Ethelbald, Brordan,
Wilbert, Elmund, Frethegis. These, and many others
who were there, servants of the king, all assented to it.
This writing was written six hundred and sixty-four years
after the birth of our Lord, (in) the seventh year of king
Wulf here ; the ninth year of archbisliop Deus-dedit. They
then laid the curse of God, and the curse of all saints, and
of all Christian people (upon him) who should undo any
thing which there was done. * So be it,` say all, ` Amen.`

When these tilings were done, the king sent to Rome to
Vitalian who then was pope, and desired that he should
grant by his rescript, and with his blessing, all the before-
mentioned things. And the pope sent this rescript, thus
saying, ` I, pope Vitalian, concede to thee king Wulf here,
and archbishop Deus-dedit, and abbat Sexwulf, all the things
which ye desire, and I forbid tfcat any king or any man have
any claim thereon, except the abbat alone ; nor let him obey
any man except the pope of Rome, and the archbishop of
Canterbury. If any one break this in any thing, may St.
Peter exterminate him with his sword : if any one observe
it, may St. Peter, with the keys of heaven, undo for him the
kingdom of heaven.` Thus the monastery at Medeshamstede
was begun, which since has been called Burh [Peterborough].

After that, another archbishop came to Canterbury, wlio
was called Theodore, a very good and a wise mun, and he
held his synod with his bishops and with tlie clergy. There
was Winfred bishop of the Mercians deposed from his


bishopric, aad abbat Saxulf was there chosen to be bi&hop,
and Cuthbald, a monk of the same monastery, was chosen
abbat. This synod was held six hundi`cd and seventy -three
years after the birth of our Lord.

A. 658. This year Kenwalk fought against the Welsh at
Peonna [Pen] ; and he drove them as far as Pedrida,
[Petherton ?] this was fought after he came from East-
Anglia ; he was there three years in exile. Thither had
Penda driven him. and deprived liim of his kingdom, because
he had forsaken his sister.

A. 659.

A. 660. This year Bishop Agilbert departed from Ken-
walk, and Wini held the bishopric* three years, and Agil-
bert obtained the bishopric of Paris in France by the

A. 661. This year, during Easter, Kenwalk fought at
Pontesbury, and Wulfhere, the son of Penda, laid the coun-
try waste as far as Ashdown. And Cuthred the son of
Cuichelm and king Cenbertl died in one year. And
Wulfhere the son of Penda laid waste Wight, and gave the
people of Wight to Ethelwald king of the Sontli- Saxons,
because Wulfhere had been his sponsor at baptism. And
Eappa the mass-priest, by the command of Wilfrid and
King Wulfhere, was the first of men who brought baptism to
the people of the Isle of Wight.

A. 662. 663.

A. 664. This year the sim was eclipsed on the 5th before the
Nones of May ; J and Earconbert king of tlie Kentish-men
died, and Egbert his son succeeded to the kingdom ; and
Colman,§ with his companions, went to his country. The
same year there was a gre-at pestilence in the island of Bri-
tain, and bishop Ij Tuda died of the pestilence, and was buried
at Wagele.^ And Chad and Wilfrid were oraained ; and
the same year archbishop Deus-dedit died.

A. 665. 666.

A. 667. This year Oswy and I gbert sent Wi rhard

Of Wessex, at Winchegter.

t " Father of Caedwalla, king of Wessex. See A. t;85." — Petri^.
X May 3. "This happened on the 1st of Mav ; but the error »«
Bede`s." — Petrie.

I Bishop of Lindisfarne. H Of Lindiafarae. *J Cf. Bede 1. iii. c. 27.


tlie priest to Rome, that he might there be conH< orated arch-
bishop of Canterbury ; but he died soon after lie came

A. 667. This year Wighard went to Rome, even as King Oswy and
Egbert had sent him.

A. 668. This year Theodore was ordained an archbishop,
and sent to Britain.

A. 669. This year king Egbert gave Reculver to Bas-
the mass-priest, that he might build a minster thereon.

A. 670. This year Oswy king of the North-humbrian.
d\e(^^ on the loth before the Kalends of ^larch ;* and Egfri(
Ilia son reigned after him ; and Hlothere,| the nephew oi
bishop Agilbert, obtained the bishopric over the West-
Saxons, and held it seven years. Bishop Theodore conse-
crated him. And OsWy was the son of Ethelfrid, Ethelfrid
of Ethelric, Ethelric of Ida, Ida of Eoppa.

A. 67 L This year was the great destruction among the

A. 672. This year king Kenwalk died, and Sexburga his
queen reigned one year after him.

A. 673. This year Egbert, king of the Kentish-men
died ; and the same year tliere was a Synod at Hertford, and
Saint Etheldrida began the minster at Ely.

A. 674. This year Escwin succeeded to the kingdom of
the West- Saxons ; he was the son of Cenfus, Cenfus of
Cenferth, Cenferth of Cuthgils, Cuthgils of Ceolwulf, Ceol-
wulf of Cynric, Cynric of Cerdic.

, A. 675. This year Wulfhere, the son of Penda, and
Escwin, the son of Cenfus, fought at Beadan-head ; and
the same year Wulfhere died, and Ethelred succeeded to
the kingdom.

Now in his time he sent bishop Wilfrid to Rome to the
pope that then was, he was called Agatho, and sliowed him
l)y letter and by message how his brothers Peada and Wulf
here, and Sexwulf theabbat, had built a minster, which was
called Medeshamstede, and that they luid freed it against
king and against bishop of all services ; and he besought
him that he would assent to it with his rescript and with his
blessing. And then the pope sent his rescript to England,
thus saying :

February 15th t Elouthenus, oisnop of WuLcheater.


"I, Agatho, pope of Rome, greet well the worsliipful
Ethelred, king of the Mercians, and the archbishop Theo-
dore of Canterbury, and the bishop of the Mercians Sexwulf,
who Avas foimerly abbat, and all the abbats who are in Eng-
land, with the greeting of God and my blessing. I have
heard the desire of king Ethelred, and of archbishop Theo-
dore, and of bishop Sexwulf, and of abbat Cuthbald ; and
it is my will that it be in all wise even as you liave spoken.
And I ordain, on behalf of God and St. Peter, and of all
saints, and of every person in orders, that neither king, nor
bishop, nor earl, nor any man have any claim, nor any tribute,
geld, or military service ; neither let any man exact any
kind of service from the abbacy of Medeshamstede. I also
ordain that the shire-bishop be not so bold that he perform
any ordination or consecration within the abbacy unless the
abbat beseech it of him, nor have any claim there for
proxies, or synodals, or for any kind of thing. And it is my will
that the abbat be holden as legate of Rome over all the
island, and that wliatsoever abbat shall be there chosen by
tlie monks, he be consecrated by the archbishop of Canter-
bury. I will and concede that whatever man shall have
made a vow to go to Rome, which he may be unable to fulfil,
either from sickness or his Lord`s need (of him), or from
poverty, or be unable to come there from any other kind of
need, be he of England, or of whatever other island he be, let
him come to the minster at Medeshamstede, and have the same
forgiveness of Christ and St. Peter, and of the abbat and
of the monks, that he sliould have if he went to Rome.
Now I beseech tliee, brother Theodore, that thou cause to
be commanded throughout aD England, that a synod be
gathered, and this decree, be read and observed. In like
manner I command thee bishop Sexwulf, that even as thou
didst desire that the minster be free, so I forbid thee and ah
the bishops that shall come after thee, from Christ and all his
saints, that ye have any claim upon the minster, except so
far as ttie abbat shall be wilHng. Now will I say in a word,
that whoso observeth this rescript and this decree, let him
be ever dwelling with God Almighty in the kingdom of
heaven ; and whoso breaketh through it, let him be excom-
municated, and thrust down witli Judas and Wi^h all the
devils in he`l unless he turn t: repentance. Aikicn I"


This rescript Pop^ Agatho and one hundred and twenty-
five bishops sent to England by Wilfrid archbishop of York.
This was done six hundred and eighty years after tlie birth
oi` our Lord, and in the sixth year of king Ethelred.

The king then commanded the archbishop Theodore
tliat he should appoint a meeting of all the witan at the
place which is called Heathfield.* When they were there
assembled, he caused the rescript to be read, which the pope
liad sent thither, and they all assented to and fully con-
firmed it.

Then said the king : " All those things which my brother
Peada, and my brother Wulf here, and my sisters Kyneburg
and Kyneswith, gave and granted to St. Peter and the abbat,
it is my will shall stand ; and I will in my day increase it
for the good of their souls and of my own. Now to-day I
give St. Peter at his minster, Medeshamstede, these lands
and all that lieth there adjoining ; that is to say, Bredon,
Replugs, Cadney, Swineshead, Hanbury, Lodeshall, Scuffan-
hall, Cosford, Stratford, Wattleburn, Lushgard, Ethelhun-
island, Bardney. These lands I give St. Peter all as freely
as I myself possessed them, and so that none of my succes-
sors take anything therefrom. If any one shall do so, let
him have the curse of the pope of Rome, and the curse of
all bishops, and of all those who are here witnesses, and this
I confirm with Christ`s token.kj^" "I, Theodore, arch-
bishop of Canterbury, am witness to this charter of Medes-
hamstede, and I confirm it with my signature, and I excom-
municate all those who shall break any part thereof, and I
bless all those who shall observe It.hJ<" " I, Wilfrid, arch-
bishop of York, I am witness to this charter, and I assent to
the same curse.K^" " I, Sexwulf, who was first abbat and am
now bishop, I give those my curse, and that of all my suc-
cessors, who shall break through this." "I, Ostritha, wife
of Ethelred, grant it." " I, Adrian, legate, assent to it.`*
*` I, Putta, bishop of Rochester, 1 subscribe it." " I, Wald-
here, bishop of London, confirm it." " 1, Cuthbald, abbat,
assent to it. so that whoso shall break it, let him have the
cursing of all bishops and of all Christian folk. Amen !"

A. 676. This year, in which Hedda succeeded to his bishop-
nc ;f Escwin died, and Kentwin succeeded to the kingdom
Bishop`s Hatfield. + Of Wcssex, or Winci)e


ot` the West-Saxons : and Kentwin was the son of Cynegils,
Cynegils of Ceolwulf. And Etheh-ed, king of the Mer-
cians, laid waste Kent.

A. 677.

A. 678. This year the star (called) a comet appeared in
August, and shone like a sunbeam every morning for tliree
months ; and bishop Wilfrid was driven from his bishopric
by King Egfrid ; and two bishops were consecrated in his
stead ; Bosa to Deira. and Eata to Bernicia. And Eadlied
was consecrated bishop over the men of Lindsey ; he was
the first of the bishops of Lindsey.

A. 679. Tliis year Elfwin was slain near the Trent,
u`here Egfrid and Ethelred fought ; and Saint Ethel-
drida died. And Coldingham was burned by fire from

A. 680. This year archbishop Theodore appointed a
synod at Heathfield, because he wished to set forth aright
the Christian faith. And the same year Hilda, abbess of
Whitby, died.

A. 681. This year Tumbert was consecrated bishop of
Hexham, and Trumwine of the Picts, * for at that time they
were subject to this country.

A. 682. Li this year Kentwin drove the Britons to the

A. 683.

A. 684. Here in this year Egfrid sent an army against
the Scots, and Beort his ealdorman with it, and miserably
they plundered and burned the churches of God.

A. 685. This year king Egfrid commanded that Cuth-
bert should be consecrated a bishop ; and on the first day of
Easter, at York, archbishop Theodore consecrated him
bishop of Hexham ; because Tumbert had been deposed
from his bishopric. This year Casdwalla began to contend for
the kingdom. Credwalla was the son of Cenbert, Cenbert
of Cadda, Cadda of Cutha, Cutha of Ceawlin, Ceawlin of Cyn-
ric, Cynric of Cerdic. And M ul was the brother of Ccedwalla,
and he was afterwards burned in Kent. And the same year,
on the 13th before the Kalends of June, king Egfrid was
glain near the North-sea, and a great army with him He
was king fifteen years, and Alfrid his brotlier succeeded to

* Whithem.


the kingdom after him. Egfrid was the son of Oswy,
Oswj of Ethelfrid, Ethelfrid of EtheMc, Ethebic of
Ida, Ida of Eoppa. And Lothere, king of the Kentish-
men, died the same year. And John was consecrated bishop
of Hexham, and he was there until Wilfrid returned.
Afterwards John succeeded to the bishopric of York, for
bishop Bosa was dead. Then, after that, Wilfrid* his
priest was consecrated bishop of York, and John retired to
his minster at Derewood.f This year it rained blood in
Britain, and milk and butter were turned into blood.

A. 685. And in this same year Cuthbert was consecrated bishop of
Hexham by archbishop Theodore at York, because bishop Tumbert had
Seen driven from the bishopric.

A. 686. This year Casdwalla and Mul his brother laid
waste Kent and Wight. This Csedwalla gave to St. Peter`s
minster at Medeshamstede, Hook, which is in an island called
E£>borough ; the then abbat of the monastery was called
Egbald. He was the third abbat after Sexwulf. At that
time Theodore was archbishop in Kent.

A. 687. This year Mul was burned in Kent, and twelve
other men with him ; and the same year Casdwalla again
laid waste Kent.

A. 688. This year Ina succeeded to the kingdom of the
West-Saxons, and held it thirty-seven years ; and he built
the minster at Glastonbury ; and he afterwards went to
Rome, arid there dwelt to the end of his days : and the same
year Casdwalla went to Rome, and received baptism from
the pope, J and the pope named him Peter ; and in about
seven days he died. Now Lia was the son of Cenred, Cen-
red of Ceolwald, Ceolwald was Cynegil`s brother, and they
were sons of Cuthwine the son of Ceawlin, Ceawlin of Cyn-
ric, Cynric of Cerdic.

A. 688. This year king Caedwalla went to Rome, and received baptism
of Pope Sergius, and he gave him the name of l*eter, and in about seven
days afterwards, on the twelfth before the Kalends of May, while he was yet
in his baptismal garments, he died ; and he was buried in St. Peter`s
church. And Ina succeeded to the kingdom of the West-Saxons afte
him, and he reigned twenty-seven years.

A. 689.

A- 690. This year archbishop Theodore died ; he wrxj

"I" Beverley. X Sergius.


bisliop t\v;intv-two years, and he was buried at Cant(`rbury ;
and Bcrthvrald succeeded to the bishopric. Before tliis tlie
bi.slioy)s had been Romans, but from this time tiiey were

A. 69L

A. 692. This year Berthwald was chosen archbishop on
the Kalends of July ; he was before that abbat of Reculver.
There were then two kings in Kent, Withred and Webherd

A. 698. This year Berthwald was consecrated archbishop
by Guodun, bishop of the Grauls, on the 5th before the Nones
of July. * At this time Gebmund, bishop of Rochester, died,
and archbishop Berthwald consecrated Tobias in his place ;
and Drithelm departed this life.

A. 694. This year the Kentish-men compounded with
Lia, and gave him thirty thousand pounds t for his friendship,
because tliey had formerly burned Mul. And Witlired suc-
ceeded to the kingdom of the Kentish-men, and held it
thirty-three years. Withi-ed was the son of E^jbert, Eg-
bert of Earconbert, Earconbert of Eadbald, Eadbald of

As soon as he was king, he commandee
assembled at the place which is called Baccancelde,J in whicii
sat Withred, king of the Kentish-men, and Berthwald, the
archbishop of Canterbury, and Tobias, bishop of Rochester,
and with them were assembled abbats and abbesses, and
many wise men, all to consult about the bettering of God`s
churches in Kent. Now began the king to speak, and said,
" It is my will that all the minsters and the churches tliat were
given and bequeathed to the glory of God in the days of
faithful kings my predecessors, and in the days of my kins-
men, of King Ethelbert a-nd those who followed after him,

The 29th of June.

f- " The reading of MSS. B and F, howevsr excessive the sum may ap-
pear, has been placed in the text, because, unlike the `thirty men` of
A.Gt or the ` thirty thousand` of D.E, it is intelligible without haviug
recourse to conjecture. The payment, whatever its amount may have been,
was probably the legal compensation for tli-e death of Mul ... Of the
early Latin \vriters, Ethelwald says, it was 30,000 solidi, * per singul w
con`^tanti numero sexdecim nummis ;` Florence, of Worcester, 37^1`
pouiids ; and Malmesbury, 30,000 maucuses, which, at eight to the pounl,
vould agree with Florence." — Fetrie. X Beckenham, Kent.


do so remain to the glory of God, and firmlj cou^nne co tc
all etr.i nitj for evermore. For I, Withred, an earthly king,
instigated by the King of heaven, and burning with the zeal
of righteousness, have learned from the institutes of our
forefathers, that no layman has a right to possess himself of
a church, nor of any of the things which belong to a church.
And hence strictly and faithfully do we appoint and decree,
and in the name of the Almighty God and of all his saints
we forbid to all kings our successors, and to ealdormen, and
all laymen any lordship whatever over the churches, and
over all their possessions, which I, or my elders of olden
days, have given as an everlasting inheritance to the glory of
Clirist and of our lady St. Mary, and of the holy apostles.
And observe, when it shall happen that a bishop, or an abbat,
or an abbess, shall depart this life, let it be made known to
the archbishop, and by liis counsel and advice, let such an
one be chosen as shall be worthy. And let the archbishop
inquire into the life and purity of him who is chosen to such
a duty, and in nowise let any one be chosen to such a duty
without the counsel of the archbishop. It is the duty of
kings to appoint earls and ealdormen, shire-reeves and
doomsmen, and of the archbishop to instruct and advise the
community of God, and bishops, and abbats, and abbesses,
priests and deacons, to choose and appoint, and consecrate and
stablish them by good precepts and example, lest any of
God`s flock stray and be lost.

A. 695. 696.

A. 697. Tliis year the South-humbrians slew Ostritha,
Ethelred`s queen, Egfrid`s sister.

A. 698.

A. 699. This year tlie Picts slew Beort the ealdorman.

A. 700. 701.

A. 702. This year Kenred succeeded to the kingdom of
the South-humbrians.

A. 703. This year bishop Hedda died, and he held the
bishopric at Winchester twenty-seven years.

A- 704. This year Ethelred the son of Penda, king of
the Mercians, became a monk, and he had held the kingdom
twenty-nine years ; then Kenred succeeded to it.

A. 70o. This year Alfrid king of the Nortli-humbrians
died at Driffield on the nineteauth before the Kalends of


January : and bishop Sexwuli`.* Then Osred Ids son
succeeded to the kingdom.

A. 7()6.— 708.

A. 709. This year bishop Aldhehn died, he was bishop j
on the west of Selwood ; and in tlie early days of Daniel the
land of the West-Saxons was divided into two bishop-shires,
and before that it had been one ; the one ^ Daniel held, the
other § Aldhelm. After Aldhelni, Forthhere succeeded to
it. And king Ceolred succeeded to the kingdom of the
Mercians ; and Kenred went to Rome, and Offa with him.
And Kenred was there till the end of his life. And the
same year bishop Wilfrid IJ died at Oundle, and his body
was carried to Ripon ; he was bishop forty-five years ; him
king Egfrid had formerly driven away to Rome.

A. 710. This year Acca, Wilfrid`s priest, succeeded to
the bishopric % which before he had held ; and the same year
Bertfrid the ealdorman fought against the Picts between
Ileugh and Carau. And Ina and Nun his kinsman fought
against Gerent king of the Welsh ; and the same year
Higbald was slain.

A. 71 L— 713.

A. 714. This year Saint Guthlac died, and king Pepin.

A. 715. This year Ina and Ceolred fought at Wanborough.
This year died king Dagobert.

A. 716. This year Osred king of the North-humbrians
was slain on the southern border ; he had the kingdom seven
years after Alfrid; then Kenred succeeded to the kingdom,
and held it two years, then Osric, who held it eleven years ;
and the same year Ceolred king of the Mercians died, and
his body lies at Lichfield, and Ethelred`s the son of Penda
at Bardney. Then Ethelbald succeeded to the kingdom of
the Mercians, and held it forty-one years. Ethelbald was
the son of Alwy, Alwy of Eawa, Eawa of Pybba, whose
genealogy is written before.** And that pious man Egbert
converted the monks in the island of Hiito the right faith, so
that they observed Easter duly, and the ecclesiastical tonsure.

A. 717.

A. 718. This year Ingild the brother of Lia died, and
their sisters were Cvvenburga and Cuthburga. And Cuthburga

Of Lichfield. t Of Sherborne. t Winchr.^er.

$ Sherborne. fl Of Hexham. ^ Hexliam. *A. 626.



built the monasierj at Wimburn ; and she was given in
marriage to Alfrid king of the North -liumbriang ; but they
separated during his life-time.

A. 719. 720.

A. 72L This year bishop Daniel* went to Rome; and
the same year Ina slew Cynewulf the etheling. And this
year the holy bishop Johnf died; he was bishop tl .irty-three
years, eight months, and thirteen days ; and his body rests
at Beverley.

A. 722. This year queen Ethelburga razed Taunton,
which Ina had previously built ; and Ealdbert the exile
departed into Surry and Sussex, and Ina fought against the
South- Saxons.

A. 723. 724.

A. 72o. This year Withred king of the Kentish-men died
on the ninth before the Kalends of May ; he reigned thirty-fuur
years ; his genealogy is above : and Egbert succeeded to
the kingdom of Kent ; and Ina fought against the South-
Saxons, and there slew Ealdbert the etheling, whom he
before had driven into exile.

A. 726.

A. 727. This year Tobias bishop of Roche.ster died, and
in his place archbishop Berthwald consecrated Aldwulf bishop.

A. 728. This year Ina went to Rome, and there gave (up)
his life, and Ethelard his kinsman succeeded to the
kingdom of the West- Saxons, and held it fourteen years.
And the same year Ethelard and Oswald the etheling
fought ; and Oswald was the son of Ethelbald, Ethelbald
of Cynebald, Cynebald of Cuthwin, Cuthwin of Ceawlin.

A. 729. This year the star (called) a comet appeared, and
Saint Egbert died in li.

A. 729. And the same year Osric died ; he was king eleven years ;
then Ceolwulf succeeded to the kingdom, and held it eight yeara.

A. 730. This year Oswald the etheling died.

A. 731. This year Osric king of the North-humbrians
was slain, and Ceolwulf succeed^^d to the kingdom, and held
It eight years,J and Ceolwulf was the son of Cutha, Cutha
Df Cuthwin, Cutlntvin of Leodwald, Leodwald of Egwald,

Of Winton. + Of York.

J Osric`s death is rightly placed by another .MS. in 729.


Egwald of Aldlielm, Aldhelm of Ocga, Ocga of Ida, Ida of
Eoppa. And archbishop Berthwald died on the Ides of
January ;* he was bishop thirty-seven years six months and
fourteen days. And the same year Tatwine was con-
secrated archbishop ;^ he had been before a priest at Bredon
among the Mercians. Daniel bishop of Winch-ester, and
Ingwald bishop of London, and Aldwin bishop of Lichfield,
and Aldwulf bishop of Rochester consecrated him on thb
tentli of June : he had the archbishopric three years.

A. 732.

A. 733. This year Ethelbald conquered Somerton ; and
the sun was eclipsed, and the whole disc of the sun was like
a black shield. And Acca was driven from his bishopric. J

A. 734 This year the moon was as if it had been
sprinkled with blood ; and archbishop Tatwine and Bede
died, and Egbert was consecrated bishop. §

A. 735. This year bishop Egbert received his pall at

A. 736. This year archbishop Nothelm received his pall
from the bishop of the Romans. ||

A. 737. This year bishop Forthere,^ and queen Fritho-
githa** went to Rome. And king Ceolwulf j f received Peter`s
tonsure, and gave his kingdom to Eadbert, his uncle`s son ;
he reigned twenty-one years ; and bishop Ethelwaldl| and
Acca died, and Conwulf was consecrated bishop. § § And the
same year king Ethelbald laid waste the land of the North-

A. 738. This year Eadbert the son of Eata, Eata being
the son of Leodwald, succeeded to the kingdom of the North-
humbrians, and held it twenty-one years. His brother was
archbishop § Egbert the son of Eata ; and they both rest
in one porch in the city of York.

A. 739. 740.

A. 741. This year king Ethelard died, and Cuthred
his kinsman succeeded to the kingdom of the West-Saxons,
and held it sixteen years ; and he contended strenuously
against Ethelbald king of the Mercians. And archbishcp

The i3th of Jinuary. f Of Canterbury. J Hexham.

$ Of York. II Greg. III. % Of Wjit-fiu.

* Of Wessex. {+ Of Northumbria.

tX Of Lim]isia3T.e. § § Of York.


Nothelm* died, and Cuthbert was consecrated archbishop 1
and Dun bishop to Rochester. This year York was burnt.

A. 742. This year a great synod was held at Cloveshou ;
and there was Ethelbald king of the Mercians, and
archbishop Cuthbert, and many other wise men.

A. 743. This year Ethelbald king of the Mercians, and
Cuthred king of the West -Saxons, fought against the

A. 744. This year Daniel gave up the see of Winchester,
and Hunferth succeeded to the bishopric : and stars were
Been to shoot rapidly : and Wilfrid the younger, f who was
bishop of York, died on the third before the Kalends of
May ; J he was bishop thirty years.

A. 745. This year Daniel died : then forty- three years
had elapsed since he obtained the bishopric.

A. 746. This year king Selred was slain,

A. 747.

A. 748. This year Cynric the etheling of the West-
Saxons was slain : and Eadbert king of the Kentish-men
died ; and Ethelbert, the son of king Withred, succeeded to
the kingdom.

A. 749.

A. 750. This year Cuthred, king of the West-Saxons,
fought against Ethelhun, the proud ealdorman.

A. 751.

A. 752. This year Cuthred, king of the West-Saxons, in
the twelfth year of his reign, fought at Burford against
Ethelbald king of the Mercians, and put him to flight.

A. 753. This year Cuthred, king of the West-Saxons,
fought against the Welsh.

A. 754. This year Cuthred, king of the West- Saxons,
died ; and Kineward obtained the bishopric of Winchester,
after Hunferth : and the same year Canterbury was burned :
and Sigebert his kinsman succeeded to the kingdom of the
West- Saxons, and held it one year.

A. 755. This year Cynewulf, and the West-Saxon ^witan `

Of Canterbury.

t Wilfrid the second, archbishop of York, is apparently confounded
with the bishop of Worcester of the same name. The former vai
ucceeded by Egbert in 734. See A. 734 and 776, and Bede, p. 299.

I The 29th of April.


deprived his kinsman Sigebert of his kingdom, except
Hampsliire, for his unjust doings ; and that lie hckl until he
slew the ealdorman wlio longest abode by him. And then
Cynewulf drove him into Andred, and he abode there until
a swine-herd stabbed him at Privets-flood [Frivett, Hamp-
sliire], and avenged tlie ealdorman Cumbra.

And Cynewulf fought very many battles against the
Welsh ; and after he had held the kingdom about one and
iliirty years, he purposed to expel an etheling, who was
named Cyneard : and Cyneard was Sigebert`s brother.
And he then learned that the king with a small band was
gone to Merton to visit a woman ; and he there beset him
and surrounded the chamber on every side, before the men
who were with the king discovered him. And when the
king perceived this, he went to the door, and there manfully
defended himself, until he beheld the etheling, and then he
rushed out upon him and sorely wounded him ; and they all
continued fighting against the king until they had slain

And upon tliis, the king`s thanes having discovered the
affray by the woman`s cries, each, as he was ready, and with
liis utmost speed ran to the spot. And the etheling offered
money and life to each of them, and not one of them would
accept it ; but they continued fighting till they all fell, except
one, a British hostage, and he was sorely wounded.

Then upon the morrow, the king`s thanes, whom he had
left behind him, heard that the king was slain, then rode they
thither, and Osric his ealdorman, and Wiferth his thane, and
the men whom he had previously left behind. And at the
town wherein the king lay slain they found the etheling, and
those within had closed the gates against them ; but they
then went onward And he then offered them their own
choice of land and money if they would grant liim the
kingdom, and showed them that their kinsman were with
him, men who would not desert him. And they then said,
that no kinsman was dearer to them than their lord, and that
they never would follow his murderer. And they then bade
their kinsmen tnat they should go away from him in safety ;
but they said that the same had been bidden their companions
who before that had been with the king ; then they said, tliMS
they no more j^uiddd it `than your companions who were


slain with the king.` And then they continued fifrhting
around the gates until they made their way in, and slew the
etiieling, and all the men who were whh him, except one
who was the ealdorman`s godson ; and he escaped with life,
though he was wounded in several places.

And Cynewulf reigned thirty-one years, and his body lies
at Winchester, and thp etheling`s at Axminster ; and their
riglit paternal kin reaches to Cerdic.

And the same year Ethelbald king of the Mercians was
slain at Seckington, and his body lies at Repton, and he
. reigned forty-one years ; and Bernred obtained the kingdom,
and held it a little while and unhappily. And the same year
Offa drove out Bernred and obtained the kingdom, and held
it thirty-nine years ; and his son Egfert held it one hundred
and forty- one days. OfFa was the son of Thingferth,
Thingferth of Enwulf, Enwulf of Osmod, Osmod of
Eawa, Eawa of Pybba, Pybba of Creoda. Creoda of
Cynewald, Cynewald of Cnebba, Cnebba of Icel, Icel of
Eomaer, Eomger of Angeltheow, Angel theow of Offa, Oifa of
Weermund, Weermund of Wihtlteg, Wihtlaeg of Woden.

A. 755. This year C\Tiewulf deprived king Sigebert of his kingdom ;
and Sigebert`s brother, Cynehard by name, slew Cynewulf at Merton ; and
he reigned thirty-one years. And in the same year Ethelbald king of the
Mercians was slain at Re])ton. And Otfu succeeded to the kingdom of the
Mercians, Bernred being driven out.

A. 756.

A. 7o7. This year Eadbert king of the North-humbrians
was shorn, and his son Oswulph succeeded to the kingdom,
and reigned one year ; and he was slain by his household on
the eighth before the Kal. of August.*

A. 758. This year archbishop Cuthbert died ; and he
held tlie archbishopric eighteen years.f

A. 759. TMs year Bregowin was ordained archbishop at
St. Michael`s-tide, and held the see four years. And Moll
Kthelwald succeeded to the kingdom of the Northhum-
Ijrians, and reigned six years, and then resigned it.

A. 760. This year Ethelbert king of the Kentish-men
died ; he was the son of king Withred : and Ceclwulf also

A. 761. This year was the severe winter ; and Moll king
The 25th o/ July f Of CaLterbxi y.


of the Nortli-humbrians slew Oswin at Edwin`s Cliff on
the eighth before the Ides ol` August.

A. 762. This year archbishop * Bregowin died.

A. 763. Tiiis year Lambert was ordained archbishop (in
the fortieth day after mid-winter,| and held the see twenty-«ix
years. And Frithwald bishop of Whitherne died on the
Nones of May. J He was consecrated at York on the
eighteenth before the Kal. of September, § in the sixth year of
Ceolwulf`s reign, and he was bishop twenty-nine years.
Then Petwin was consecrated bishop of Whitherne at
Adlingfleet, on the sixteenth before the Kalends of August.]

A. 764. This year archbishop Lambert received his pall.

A. 765. This year Alcred succeeded to the kingdom of
the North-humbrians, and reigned nine years.

A. 766. Tliis year died archbishop Egbert at York on
the 1 3th before the Kalends of December ; he was bishop
rhirty-seven years ; and Fritlibert at Hexham ; he was
bishop thirty-three years ; and Ethelbert was consecrated
to York, and Alhmund to Hexham.

A. 767.

A. 768. This year king Eadbert the son of Eata, died
on the thirteenth before the Kalends of September.

A. 769.— 77L

A. 772. This year bishop Milred % died.

A. 773. This year a fiery crucifix appeared in the heavens
after sunset : and the same year the Mercians and the
Kentish-men fought at Otford ; and wondrous adders were
seen in the land of the South- Saxons.

A. 774. This year at Easter-tide, the North-humbrians
drove their king Alcred from York, and took Ethelred, the
son of Moll, .to be their lord ; he reigned four years.

A. 775.

A. 776. This year bishop Petwin** died on the thir-
teenth before the Kalends of October ; he was bishop four-
teen years.

A. 777. This year Cynewolf and Offa fought about Ben-
ftington, and Ofia took the town ; and the same year, oa

Canterbury. t The 2nd of February.

+ The 7th of Mav. § Tlie 15th of August.

} The 1 7th of Jilly. ni Of Worcester.
Oi Wliitlieme.


the seventeenth before the Kalends of July, Ethelbert was
consecrated at York bishop of Whitherne.

In the days of king OtFa there was an abbat of Medesham-
stede called Beonna. The same Beoniia, by the consent ol
all the monks of the minster, let to Cuthbert the ealdorman
ten copy-lands at Swineshead, with lease, and with meadow,
and with all that lay thereto, and on this condition :
that Cuthbert should give the abbat therefore fifty pounds,
and each year one day`s entertainment, or thirty shillings in
money ; and furthermore, that after his decease the land
should return to the minster. The witnesses of this were
king OfFa, and king Egfert, and archbishop Higbert,* and
bishop Ceolwulf, and bishop Inwona, and abbat Beonna, and
many other bishops and abbats, and many other great men.
In the days of this same OfFa there was an ealdorman who
was called Brorda. He desired of the king that for love of
him he would free a minster of his called Woking, because
he wished to give it to Medeshamstede, and St. Peter, and
the abbat tliat then was, who was called Pusa. Pusa
succeeded Beonna, and the king loved him greatly. And
the king then freed the minster Woking, against king, and
against bishop, and against earl, and against all men, so that
no one should have any claim there except St. Peter and the
abbat. This was done in the king`s town called Free-

A. 778. This year Ethelbald and Herbert slew three
liigh-reeves ; Edulf, the son of Bosa, at Kings-cliif, and
Cynewolf and Egga at Helathyrn, on the eleventh before the
Kalends of April : and then Alfwold obtained the kingdom, |
and drove Ethelred out of the country ; and he reigned ten

A. 779.

A. 780. This year the Old-Saxons and the Franks fought ;
and the high-reeves of the North -hunibrians burned Bern
the ealdorman at Silton, on the eightli before the Kalends of
January : and archbisliop Ethelbert died at York, in
whose place Eanbald was consecrated ; and bishop Cynewolf
gave up tlie bishopric of Lindisfarne. This year Alhmund,
bishop of Hexham, died on the seventh before the Ides of
beptember, and Tilbert was consecrated in his place on the
Of Lichrield! t I^orthumbria.


sixth before the Nones of October; and Higbald was ccnse-
ci-ated at Sockbury bishop of Lindisfarne ; and king Alfwold
sent to Rome for a pall, and invested Banbald as archbishop.

A. 781.

A. 782. This year died Werburh, Ceolred`s queen, and
Cynewolf, bishop of Lindisfarne ; and there was a synod at

A. 783.

A. 784. This year Cyneard slew king Cynewolf, and was
himself there slain, and eighty-four men with him; and
then Bertric obtained the kingdom of the West- Saxons,
and he reigned sixteen years, and his body lies at Wareham ;
and his right paternal kin reaches to Cerdic. At this time
king Elmund reigned in Kent. This king Elmund was
the father of Egbert, and Egbert was father of Athulf.

A. 785. This year abbat Bothwin died at Ripon ; and
this year there was a contentious synod at Chalk-hythe, and
archbishop Lambert gave up some portion of his bishopric,
and Higbert was elected by king OfFa ; and Egfert was
consecrated king. And at this time messengers were sent
from Rome by pope Adrian to England, to renew the faith
and the peace which St. Gregory had sent us by Augustine
tlie bishop ; and they were worshipfully received, and sent
away in peace.

A. 786.

A. 787. This year king Bertric took to wife Eadburga,
king OiFa`s daughter ; and in his days first came three ships
of Northmen, out of Hasretha-land [Denmark]. And then
the reve* rode to the place, and would liave driven them to
the king`s town, because he knew not who they were : and
they there slew him. These were the first ships of Danish-
men which sought the land of the English nation.

A. 788. This year a synod was assembled in the land of
the North-humbrians at Eingall, on the 4th before the
Nones of September ; and abbat Albert died at Ripon.

A. 789. This year Alfwold, king of the Northumbrians,
was slain by Siga on the 8th before the Kalends of October ;
and a heavenly light was frequently seen at the place where
he was slain ; and he was buried at Hexham within the
church ; and Osred, the son of Alcred succeeded to the
Sin:e cidled sheriff ; i. e. the reve^ at stewaxd of tne shire. — Ingram.


kingdom after him : he was his nephew. And a synod was
assembled at Acley.

A. 790. This year archbishop Lambert died, and the
same year abbat Athelard was chosen archbisliop.* And
Osred, king of the North-humbrians, was betrayed, arnl
driven from the kingdom ; and Etheh`ed, the son of Ethel-
wald, again obtained the government.

A. 79 L This year Baldulf was consecrated bishop of
Whitherne, on the 16th before the Kalends of August, by
archbishop Eanbald,f and by bishop Ethelbert. J

A. 792. This year OiFa, king of the Mercians, commanded
the head of king Eth-elbert § to be struck off. And Osred,
who had been king of the Northumbrians, having come
home after his exile, was seized and slain on the 18th before
the Kalends of October ; and his body lies at Tinemouth.
And king Ethelred took a nev/ wife, who was called Elfleda,
on the 3rd before the Kalends of October.

A. 793. This year dire forwarnings came over the land
of the North-humbrians, and miserably terrified the people ;
these were excessive whirlwinds, and lightnings ; and fiery
dragons were seen flying in the air. A great famine soon
followed these tokens ; and a little after that, in the same
year, on the 6th before the Ides of January, the ravaging of
heathen men lamentably destroyed God`s church at Lindis-
farne through rapine and slaughter. And Siga died on the
8th before the Kalends of March.

A. 794. This year Pope Adrian || and king Offa died ; and
Ethelred, king of the North-humbrians, was slain by his own
people on the 13th before the Kalends of May ; and bishop
Ceolwulf ^ and bishop Eadbald went away from the land.
And Egfert succeeded to the kingdom of the Mercians
and died the same year. And Eadbert, who by a second
name was named Pren, obtained the kingdom of Kent.
And Ethelherd the ealdorman died on the Kalends of Au-
gust ; and the heathens ravaged among the North-humbrians,
and plundered Egfert`s monastery at the mouth of the Wear ;
and there one of their leaders was slain, and also some of
their ships were wrecked by a tempest ; and many of them

Of Canterbury. t Of York.

t Of H^-xh;nn. $ Of East Ang`A.

H Fop


were there dro-vvned, and some came on shore alive, and they
were soon shiin at the river`s mouth.

A. 79o. This year the moon was eclipsed between cock-
crowing and dawn, on tlie oth before the Kalends of April ;
and Eardulf succeeded to the kingdom of the North-hum brians
on the 2nd before the Ides of May ; and he was afterwards con-
secrated king, and raised to his throne on the 8th before
the Kalends of June, at York, by archbishop Eanbald, and
bishop Ethelbert,* and Higbald,`]* and Badulf,J bishops.

A. 796. This year Kenulf, king of the Mercians, laid
waste Kent as far as the marshes, and took Pren their king,
and led him bound into Mercia, and let his eyes be picked
out and his hands be cut off. And Athelard, archbishop
of Canterbury, appointed a synod, and confirmed and ratified,
by the command of Pope Leo, all the things respecting God`s
ministers which were appointed in Withgar`s days, and in
other kings` days, and thus sayeth :

"I, Athelard, the humble archbishop of Canterbury, by
the unanimous counsel of the whole synod, and with ... of
all . . . to the congregation of all the ministers to which in old
days immunity was given by faithful men, in the name of
God, and by his awful doom, I command, as I have com-
mand of Pope Leo, that henceforth none dare to choose for
themselves lords over God`s heritage from amongst laymen.
But even as it stands in the rescript which the pope has
given, or those holy men have appointed who are our fathers
and instructors concerning holy minsters, tfius let them con-
tinue inviolate, without any kind of gainsaying. If there
be any man wlio will not observe this ordinance of God, and
of our pope, and ours, and who despiseth and holdeth it for
nought, let him know that he shall give account before the
judgment-seat of God. And I, Athelard, archbishop, with
twelve bishops, and three and twenty abbats, do confirm and
ratify this same with Christ`s rood-token."

And archbishop Eanbald died on the 4tli before the Idea
of August of the same year^ and his body lies at York ; and
the same year died bishop Ceolwulf ;§ and a second Ean-

Of IlexhHUu + TJndisfarne.

X W hiU\cyfA9. I Of Lind«)y.


bald was consecrated in the place of the other on the 19th
before the Kalends of September.

A. 796. This year OfFa, kint^ of the Mercians, died en the 4th before tJie
Kalends of Augxist ; he rei^jned forty years.

A. 797. This year the Romans cut out the tongue of Pope
` ^, and put out his eyes, and drove him from his see ; and
fton afterwards, God helping, he was able to see and speak,
«nd again was pope as he before was. And Eanbald re-
ceived his pall on the 6th before the Ides of September ; and
bishop Ethelbert* died on the 17th before the Kalends of No-
vember ; and Heandred was consecrated bishop in his place
on the 3rd before the Kalends of November ; and bishop
Alfun died at Sudbury, and he was buried in Dunwich, and
Tidfrith was chosen after him ; and Siric, king of the East
Saxons, went to Rome. In this same year the body of Wit-
burga was found at Dereham, all whole and uncorrupted, five
and fifty years after she had departed from this life.

A. 798. This year there was a great fight at Whalley
in the land of the North-humbrians, during Lent, on the 4th
before the Nones of April, and there Alric, the son of Her-
bert, was slain, and many others with him.

A. 799. This year archbishop Athelardf and Kenebert
bishop of the West-Saxons,J went to Rome.

A. 800. This year, on the 17th before the Kalends of
February, the moon was eclipsed at the second hour of the
night. And king Bertric and Worr the ealdorman died, and
Egbert succeeded to the kingdom of the West- Saxons.
And the same day Ethelmund, ealdorman, rode over from
the Wiccians, at Cynemaeresford [Kempsford]. Then Wox-
tan the ealdorman with the men of Wiltshire met him.
There was a great fight, and both the ealdormen were slain,,
and the men of Wiltshire got the victory.

A. 801.

A. 801. This year Beommod was ordained bishop of Rochester.

A. 802. This year on the 13th before the Kalends of
January the moon was eclipsed at dawn ; and Beornraod was
ordained bishop of Rochester. §

Of Hexham. f Of CHiiterbury $ Winchester.

4 Placed in 801 by another Mo«


A. 803. This year died Higbald bishop of Lindisfarne on

the 8th before the Kulends of Jul/, and Egbert U. was con-
iiccrated in his stead on the 3d before the Ides of June ; and
this year archbishop Athehird died in Kent, and Wulfred
was ordained archbishop ; and abbat Forthred died.

A. 804. This year archbishop Wulfred received his pall.

A. 805. This year king Cuthred died among the Kentish-
men, and Colburga abbess,* and Herbert the ealdorman.

A. 806. This year the moon was eclipsed on the Kalends
of September : and Eardulf king of the North-humbrians
was driven from his kingdom ; and Eanbert bishop of Hex-
ham died. Also in the same year, on the 2d before the Nones
of June, a cross appeared in the moon on a Wednesday at
dawn ; and afterwards in this year, on the third before the
Kalends of September, a wonderful circle was seen about the.

A. 807. 808.

A. 809. This year the sun was eclipsed At the beginning
of tlie fifth hour of the day on the 17th before the Kalends of
Auixust, the 2d day of the week, the 29th of the moon.

A. 810. 8U.

A. 812. This year king Charlemagne died, and he reigned
five and forty years ; and archbishop Wulfred and Wigbert
bishop of the West-Saxons f both went to Rome.

A. 813. This year archbishop Wulfred, with the blessing
of pope Leo, returned to his own bishopric ; and the same
yoar king Egbert laid waste West- Wales from eastward to

A. 814. This year the noble and holy pope J Leo died,
and after him Stephen succeeded to the popedom.

A. 815.

A. 816. This year pope Stephen died, and after him
I^aschal was ordained pope ; and the same year the English
school at Rome§ was burned.

A. 817. 818.

A. 819. This year Kenulf king of the Mercians died,

Of Berkeley. f Sherborne.

} Leo 111. died 11th June 816. Eginhard, Arm. Stephen IV. was con-
tiecrated on the `22d of the same month.

$ The An;^^Ie-Scho()l was a quarter near St. Peter`s, where the English
pili^rims at Rome resided. According to Anastasius, they called it their
Borough,` (burgus). V. Anastas. Bihliothecar. de Vita Stephani i *`.


and Ceolwiilf succeeded to the kingdom ; and Eadbert the
ealdorman died.

A. 820.

A. 82 L This year Ceolwulf was deprived of his king-

A. 822. This year two ealdormen, Burhelm and Mucca,
were slain ; and there was a synod at Cloveshoo.

A. 823. Tliis year there was a battle between the Welsh
and the men of Devon at Camelford :`\ and the same year Eg-
bert king of the West- Saxons and Bernulf king of the
Mercians fought at Wilton, and Egbert got the victory,
and there was great slaughter made. He then sent from
the army his son Ethelwulf, and Ealstan his bishop,^ and
Wulf iierd his ealdorman, into Kent with a large force, and
they drove Baldred the king northwards over tlie Thames.
And the men of Kent, and the men of Surrey, and tlie South-
Saxons, and the East- Saxons, submitted to him ; for for-
merly they had been unjustly forced from his kin. And the
same year the king of the East- Angles and the people sought
tlie alliance and protection of king Egbert for dread of the
Mercians ; and the same year the East- Angles slew Bernulf
king of Mercia.

A. 824.

A. 825. This year Ludecan king of the Mercians was slain,
and his five ealdormen with hmi ; and Withlaf succeeded tc
the kinofdom.

A. 826.

A. 827. This year the moon was eclipsed § on the mass-
night of midwinter. And the same year king Egbert
conquered the kingdom of the Mercians, and all that was
south of the Humber ; and he was the eighth king who was
Bretwalda. ^Ua king of the South- Saxons was the first
who had thus much dominion ; the second was Ceawlin king
of the West- Saxons ; the third was Ethelbert king cf the
Kentish-men ; the fourth was Redwald king of tlie East-
Ajigles ; the fifth was Edwin king of the North-liumbrians ;
tiie sixth was Oswald who reigned after liim ; the seventh
v/as Oswy, Oswald`s brother ; the eighth was Egbert king
cf the West- Saxons. And Egbert led an army to l>ore

Mercia. + In Cornwall. I^ Sherborne.

$ The eclipse happened on tJie `loth of D<»oember, ii2ii.


against the North-humbn`ans, and they there offered him
obedience and allegiance, and with that tliey separated.

A. 828. This year Withhif again obtained the kingdom of
the Mercians, and bisliop Ethehvald* died ; and the same
year king Egbert led an army against the North-Welsh,
and he forced them to obedient subjection.

A. 829. Thiff^, year archbishop Wult`red died, and after
him abbat Theologild was chosen to the archbishopric.f on
the 7th before the Kalends of May ; and he was consecrated
upon a Sunday, the oth before the Ides of June : and he
died on the 3rd before the Kalends of September.

A. 830. This year Ceolnoth was chosen bishop, J and or*
dained ; and abbat Theologild died.

A. 83 L This year archbishop Ceolnoth received his pall.

A. 832. This year the heathen men ravaged Sheppey.

A. 833. This year king Egbert fought against the men (A
thirty-five ships at Charmouth, and there was great slaughter
made, and the Danish-men maintained possession of the field.
And Herefrith§ and Wigthun, || two bishops, died ; and Dudda
and Osmod, two ealdormen, died.

A. 834.

A. 835. This year a great hostile fleet came to the West-
Welsh,^ and tliey united together, and made w^ar upon Eg
bert king of the ^Vest-Saxons. As soon as he heard of it
he went thither with an army, and fought against them at
Hengeston, and there he put to flight both the Welsh and
the Danish-men.

A. 836. This year king Egbert died ; before he was
king, Offa king of the Mercians, and Bertric, king of the
West-Saxons, drove him out of England into France for
thi`ee years ; and Bertric assisted Offa, because he had his
daughter for his queen. And Egbert reigned thirty-seven
years and seven months : and Ethelwulf the son of Eg-
bert succeeded to the kingdom of the West-Saxons ; and
he gave his son Athelstan the kingdoms of the Kentish-men,
and of the East- Saxons, and of the men of Surrey, and of the
South- Saxons.

A. 836. And Ethelstan his other son succeeded to the kingdom of
the Kentish-men, and to Surrey, and to the kingdom of the South-Saxons.

Of Lichfield, f Of Canterbury. J Of Canterlury

§ Of Seleey. U Of WiEchester. -^ Corn wall.


A. 837. This year Wulfherd the ealdorman fought at
Ilamtun [Southampton], against the forces of thirty-five
si lips, and there made great slaughter, and got the victory :
and the same year Wulfherd died. And the same year
Ethelhehn the ealdorman fought against the Danish army
at Portland-isle vrith the men of Dorset, and for a good
while he put the enemy to flight ; but the Danish-men had
possession of the field, and slew the ealdorman.

A. 838. This year Herebert the ealdorman was slain "by
the heathen men, and many with him among the Marsh-
men ; and afterwards, the same year, in Lindsey, and in
East-Anglia, and in Kent, many men were slain by the

A. 839. This year there was great slaughter at London,
and at Canterbury, and at Rochester.

A. 840. This year king Ethelwulf fought at Charmouth
against the crews of thirty-five ships, and the Danish-men
maintained possession of the field. And Louis the emperor

A. 841.— 844.

A. 845. This year Eanwulf the ealdorman, with the men
of Somerset, and bishop Ealstan,* and Osric the ealdor-
man, with the men of Dorset, fought at the mouth of the
Parret against the Danish army, and there made great
slaughter, and got the victory.

A. 846.— 850.

A. 851. This year Ceorl the ealdoniian, with the men of
Devonshire, fought against the heathen men at Wembury,t
and there made great slaughter and got the victory. And
the same year king Athelstan and Elchere the ealdormen
fought on shipboard, and slew a great number of the enemy
at Sandwich in Kent, and took nine ships, and put the others
to flight ; and the heathen men, for the first time, remained
over winter in Thanet. And the same year came three
hundred and fifty ships to the mouth of the Thames, and the
crews landed and took Canterbury and London by storm,
and put to flight BerthAvulf, king of the Mercians, with
his army, and then went south over the Thames into Surrey ;
mid there king Ethelwulf and his son Ethelbald, with the
oniiy of the West- Saxons, fought against them at Ockley,
Of Sherborne. t Near Plvmouth.


ond there made the greatest slaughter among the heathen
army that we have heard reported to the present day, and
there got the victory.

A. 852. At this time Ceolred, abbat of Medeshamstede
and the monks let to Wulfred tlie land of Sempringham, on
this condition, that after his decease the laiKl should return
to the minster, and that Wulfred should give the land of
Sleaford to Medeehamstede, and each year should deliver
into the minster sixty loads of wood, and twelve of coal
and six of faggots, and two tuns full of pure ale, and
two beasts fit for slaughter, and six hundred loav(>s, and
ten measures of Welsh ale, and each year a horse, and thirty
shillings, and one day`s entertainment. At this agreement were
present king Burhred, and archbishop Ceolred, and bishop
Tunbert, and bishop Cenred, and bishop Aldhun, and
abbat AVitred, and abbat Werthcrd, and Ethelherd,
the ealdorman, and Hunbert, the ealdorman, and many

A. 853. This year Burhred, king of the Mercians, and
his council, begged of king Ethelwulf tliat he would assist
liim so that he might make the North-Welsh obedient to
him. He then did so ; and went with an army across ]\ler-
cia among the North- Welsh, and made them all obedient to
him. And the same year king Ethelwulf sent his son
Alfred to Rome. Leo [IV.] was then pope of Rome ; and
he consecrated him king, and took him for his son at confir-
mation. Then, in the same year, Ealhere, with the men of
Kent, and Huda, with the men of Surry, fought in Tlianet,
against the heathen army ; and at first they were victorious ;
and many there were slain, and drowned on either hand, and
both the ealdormen were killed. And upon this after Easter
Ethelwulf, king of the West-Saxons, gave his daughter to
Burhred king of the Mercians.

A. 854.

A. 855. This year the heathen men, for the first time,
remained over winter in Sheppey : and the same year king
Ethelwulf gave by charter the tenth part of his land
throughout -his realm for the glory of God and his own
eternal salvation. And the same year he went to Rome in
great state, and dwelt there twelve months, and then r»*-
tumed homewards. And then Charles, king of the Frani;:^


gave him his daughter to w4fe ; and after that he came to
his people, and they were glad of it. And about two years
after he came from France he died, and his body lies at Win-
chester. And he reigned eighteen years and a half. And
Ethelwulf was tlie son of Egbert, Egbert of Elmund,
Elmund of Eafa, Eafa of Eoppa, Eoppa of Ingild ; Ii gild
was Ina`s brother, king of the West- Saxons, he who held the
kingdom tliirty-seven years, and afterwards went to St.
Peter, and there resigned his life ; and they were the sons of
Kenred, Kenred of Ceolwald, Ceolwald of Cutha, Cutha of
Cuthwin, Cuthwin of Ceawlin, Ceawlin of Cynric, Cynric
of Cerdic, Cerdicof Elesa, Elesa of Esla, Eslaof Gewis, Gewis
of Wig, Wig of Freawin, Freawin of Frithogar, Frithogar
of Brond, Brond of Beldeg, Beldeg of Woden, Woden of
Fritliowald, Frithowald of Frealaf, Frealaf of Frithuwulf.
Frithuwulf of Finn, Finn of Godwulf, Godwulf of Geat,
Geat of Tcetwa, Tcetwa of Beaw, Beaw of Sceldi, Sceldi
of Heremod, Heremod of Itermon, Itermon of Hatlira,
Hathra of Guala, Guala of Bedwig, Bedwig of Sceaf, that
is, the son oi Noah, he was born in Noah`s ark ; Lamech,
Methusidem, Enoh, Jared, Malalahel, Cainion, Enos, Seth,
Adam the first man,- and our Father, that is, Christ. Amen.
Then Ethelwulf`s two sons succeeded to the kingdom ;
Ethelbald succeeded to the kingdom of the West-Saxons ;
and Ethelbert to the kingdom of the Kentish-men, and to
the kingdom of the East-Saxons, and to Surry, and to the
kingdom of the South-Saxons ; and then Ethelbald reigned
five years. Alfred nis tliird son he had sent to Rome : and
when Pope Leo f^^-J heard say that Ethelwulf was dead,
he consecrated Alfred king, and held him as his spiritual son
at confirmation, even as his father Ethelwulf had requested
on sending him thither.

A. 853. And on his return homewards he took to (wife) the daughter
of Charles, king of the French, whose name was Judith, and he came
home safe. And then in about two years he died, and his body lies at
Winchester ; and he reigned eighteen years and a half, and he was the son
of Egbert. And then his two sons succeeded to the kingdom ; Ethel-
bald to the kingdom of the West-Saxons, and Ethelbert to the kingdom
of the Kentish-men, and of the East-Saxons, and of Surry, and of the
South-Saxons. And he reigned tive years.

A. So6.— 869.

A. H60. This year died king Etlielbald, and his body lies


at Sherborne ; and Ethelbert si»cceeded to all the realm
of his brother, and he held it in goodly concord and in great
tranquillity. And in his days a large fleet came to land, and
tlie crews stornied Winchester. And Osric the ealdorman,
with the men of Hampshire, Ethelwulf the ealdorman, with
the men of Berkshire, fought against the army, and put
them to flight, and had possession of the place of carnage.
And Ethelbert reigned five years, and his body lies at

A. 861. This year died St. Swithun the bishop.*

A. 862.-864.

A. 865. This year the heathen army sat down in Thanet,
and made peace with the men of Kent, and the men of Kent
promised them money for the peace ; and during the peace
and the promise of money the army stole away by night,
and ravaged all Kent to the eastward.

A. 866. This year Ethelred, Ethelbert`s brother, suc-
ceeded to the kingdom of the West- Saxons : and the same
year a great heathen army came to the land of the English
nation, and took up their winter quarters among the East-
Angles, and there they were horsed ; and the East- Angles
made peace with them.

A. 867. This year the army went from East-Anglia over
the mouth of the Humber to York in North-humbria. And
there was much dissension among that people, and they had
cast out their king Osbext, and had taken to themselves a
king, ^lla, not of royal blood ; but late in the year they re-
solved that they would fight against the army ; and therefore
they gathered a large force, and sought the army at the town
of York, and stormed the town, and some of them got within,
and there was an excessive slaughter made of the North-
humbrians, some within, some without, and the kings were
both slain : and the remainder made peace with the army.
And the same year bishop Ealstan died; and he had the
bishopric of Sherborne fifty years, and his body lies in the

A. 868. This year the same army went into Mercia to

Nottingham, and there took up their winter quarters. And

Burhred king of the Mercians, and his `witan,` begged of

Ethelred king of the West- Saxons, and of Alfred his brother,

Winchester. „



that they would help them, that they might fight against the
army. And then they went with the West- Saxon power
into Mercia as far as Nottingham, and there met with the
army within the fortress ; and besieged them therein : but
there was no great battle; and the Mercians made peace
with the army.

A. 869. This year the army again went to York, and sat
there one year.

A. 870. This year the army rode across Mercia into East-
Anglia, and took up their winter quarters at Thetford : and
tlie same winter king Edmund fought against them, and the
Danes got the victory, and slew the king, and subdued all
the land, and destroyed all the minsters which they came to.
The names of their chiefs who slew the king were Ilingwar
and Hubba. At that same time they came to Medesham-
stede, and burned and beat it down, slew abbat and monks, and
all that they found there. And that place, which before was
full rich, they reduced to nothing. And the same year died
archbishop Ceolnoth. Then went Ethelred and Alfred his
brother, and took Athelred bishop of Wiltshire, and appomted
him archbishop of Canterbury, because formerly he had been
a monk of the same minster of Canterbury. As soon as
he came to Canterbury, and he was stablished in hi^ arch-
bishopric, he then thought how he might expol the clerks who
(were) there within, whom archbishop the Ceolnoth had (be-
fore) placed there for such need ... as we shall relate. The
first year that he was made archbishop there was so great a
mortality, that of all the monks whom he found there within,
no more than five monks surv`ved. Then for the .... he
(commanded) his chaplains, and also some priests of his vills,
that they should help the few monks who there survived to
do Christ`s service, because he could not so readily find
monks who might of themselves do the service; and for this
reason he commanded that the priests, the while, until God
should give peace in this land, should help the monks. In
that same time was this land much distressed by frequent
battles, and hence the archbishop could not there effect it,
for there was warfare and sorrow all his time over England ;
and hence the clerks remained with tlie monks. Nor was
there ever a time that monks were not tliere witliin, and they
ever had lordship over the priests. Again the archbishop


Ceolnoth thought, and also said to those who were with liim,
As soon as God sliall give peace in this land, either
these priests shall be monks, or from elsewhere I will place
within the minister as many monks as may do the service ot

tliemselves : tor God knows that I )*

A. 871. This yt^ar the army came to Reading in Wessex ;
and three days after this, two of their earls rode forth
Then Ethelwulf the ealdorman met them at Englefield, an
there fought against them, and got the victory : and there
one of them, whose name was Sidrac, was slain. About
three days after this, king Ethelrod and Alfred his brother
led a large force to Reading, and fought against the army,
and there was great slaughter made on either hand. And
Ethelwulf the ealdorman was slain, and the Danish-men had
possession of the place of carnage. And about four days
after tliis, king Ethelred and Alfred his brother fought
against the whole army at Ashdown ; and they were in two
bodies : in the one were Bagsac and Halfdene tlie heatlu-n
kings, and in the otlier were the earls. And then king
Ethelred fought against the division under the kings, and
Chere king Bagsac was slain ; and Alfred his brother
Mgainst the division under the earls, and there earl Sidrac
ihe elder was slain, earl Sidrac the younger, and eai^ Osbern,
and earl Frene, and earl Harold ; and both divisions of the
^rmy were put to flight, and many thousands slain : and they
continued fighting until night. And about fourteen days
after this, king Ethelred and Alfred his brother fought

As this portion of the text is slightly defective, the Latin narrative is
subjoined : Cum autem venisset Cantuariam, statini cogitare coepit quo-
niodo possit ejicere clericos de ecclesia Christi, quos Ceolnothus pro tali ne-
cessitaie compulsus ibi posuit. Primo igitur anno ordinationis suie tanta
mortalitas facta est in ecclesia Christi, ut de tota congTegatione moiiacho-
rum non remanerent nisi quinque. Qua de causa quia ita subito non potuit
in venire tot monachos qui ibi servitium Dei facere possent, ex simplicitate
cordis praecepit ca])ellanis clericis suis, ut essent cum eis usque quod Deus
pacificaret terram, quae tunc nimis erat turbata propter nimias tempestates
bellorum. Accepit etiam de villis suis presbyteros, ut essent cum monachis,
ita tamen ut monachi semper haberent dominatum super clericos. Cogita-
vit idem archiepiscopus et saepe suis dixit, quia statim cum Deu3 pacem
no])is dederit, aut isti clerici monachi fier.t, aut ego ubicumque monachos
inveniam quos reponam. Scit enim Deus, inquit quod aliter facero nnu
possum. Sed nunquam temporibus suis pax fuit in Anglia, et ideo remar*-
serunt clerici ciun monachis, nee ullo tempore fuit ecclesia sine mona<`iu&
Sed reo iste iEtheiredus archicDLscopus potixit laceie.

E 2


aj»alnst the army at Basing, and there the Danes cbtained
the victory. And about two months aft3r this, king Ethelre»i
and Alfred his brother fought against the army at Harden ;
and they were in two bodies, and they put both to flight,
and during a great part of the day were victorious ; and there
was great slaughter on either hand ; but the Danes had pos-
session of the place of carnage: and there bishop Heah-
raund* was slain, and many good men : and after this battle
there came a great army in the summer to Reading. And
after this, over Easter, king Ethelred died ; and he reigned
five years and his body Hes at Winburn-minster.

Then Alfred the son of Ethelwulf, his brother, succeeded
to the kingdom of the West- Saxons. And about one month
after this, king Alfred with a small band fought against the
whole army at Wilton, and put them to flight for a good part
of the day ; but the Danes had possession of the place of
carnage. And this year nine general battles were fought
against the army in the kingdom south of the Thames,
besides which, Alfred the king`s brother, and single
ealdormen, and king`s thanes, oftentimes made incursions on
them, which were not counted : and within the year nine
earls and one king were slain. And that year the West-
Saxons made peace with the army.

A. 871. And the Danish-men were overcome : and they had two
heathen kings, Bagsac and Halfdene, and many earls ; and there waa
king Bagsac slain, and these earls ; Sidrac the elder, and also Sidrac the
younger, Osbern, Frene, and Harold ; and the army was put to flight.

A. 872. This year the army went from Reading to
London, and there took up their ^vinter-quarters : and then
the Mercians made peace with the army.

A. 873. This year the army went into North-humbria,
and took up their winter-quarters at Torksey in Lindsey :
and then the Mercians made peace with the army.

A. 874. This year the army went from Lindsey to Repton,
and there took up their winter-quarters, and drove king
Burhred over sea abcat twenty-two years after he had
obtained the kingdom ; and subdued the whole country : and
Burhred went to Rome, and there remained ; and his body
li*»^ in St. Mary`s church at the English school. And that
erjne year they committed the kingdom of the Mercians to
Of SheiHorue.


the keeping of Ceolwulf, an unwise king`s-thane ; and he
swore oaths to them, and delivered hostages that it should be
re-Adj for them on wliatever day they would have it, and that
he would be ready l)oth in liis own person and with all wiio
would follow him, for the behoof of the army.

A. 875. This year the army went from Repton : and
Halfdene went with some of the army into North-humbria,
and took up winter-quarters by the river Tyne. And tlie
army subdued the land, and oft-times spoiled the Picts, and
the Strathclyde Britons. And the three kings, Gothrun, and
Oskytel, and Anwind, went with a large army from Repton
to Cambridge, and sat down there one year. And that
summer king Alfred went out to sea with a fleet, and fought
against the forces of seven ships, and one of them he took,
and put the rest to flight.

A. 876. This year the army stole away to "VVareham, a
fortress of the West- Saxons. And afterwards the king made
peace with the army ; and they delivered to the king hostages
from among the most distinguished men of the army ; and
then they swore oaths to him on the holy ring, which they
never before would do to any nation, that they would
speedily depart his kingdom. And notwithstanding this,
that part of the army which was horsed stole away by night
from the fortress to Exeter. And that year Halfdene
apportioned the lands of North-humbria : and they thence-
forth continued ploughing and tilling them. This year Rolla
overran Normandy with his army, and he reigned fifty

A. 876. And in this same year the army of the Danes in England swore
oaths to king Alfred upon the holy ring, which before they would not do to
any nation ; and they delivered to the king hostages from among the
most distinguished men of the army, that they would speedily depart from
his kingdom ; and that by night they broke.

A. 877. This year the army came to Exeter from
Wareham ; and the fleet sailed round westwards : and then
a great storm overtook them at sea, and there one hundred
and twenty ships were wrecked at Swanwich. And king
Alfred with his forces rode after the army which was
mounted, as far as Exeter ; and they were unable to overtake
them before they were within the fortress, where tliey could
not be come at. And they there delivered to him hostages

5 i THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, a.d. 878-879.

!vs many as lie would have, and swore many oaths : and then
they observed the peace well. And at`terwards, during
harvest, the army went into Mercia, and some part of it they
apportioned, and some they delivered to Ceolwulf.

A. 878. This year, during midwinter, after twelfth night,
tlie army stole aAvay to Chippenham, and overran the land of
the West- Saxons, and sat down there ; and many of the
people they drove beyond sea, and of the remainder the
greater part they subdued and forced to obey them, except
king Alfred : and he, with a small band, with difficulty
retreated to the woods and to the fastnesses of the moors.
And the same winter the brother of Hingwar and of Halfdene
came with twenty-three ships to Devonshire in Wessex ; and
he was there slain, and with him eight hundred and forty
men of his army : and there was taken the war-flag which
they called the Raven. After this, at Easter king Alfred
with a small band constructed a fortress at Athelney ; and
from this fortress, with that pait of the men of Somerset
which was nearest to it, from time to time they fought
against the army. Then in the seventh week after Easter he
rode to Brixton, on the east side of Selwood ; and there
came to meet him all the men of Somerset, and the men of
Wiltshire, and that portion of the men of Hampshire which
was on this side of the sea ; and they were joyful at his
presence. On tlie following day lie went from tliat station
to Iglea [Hey], and on the day after this to Heddington,
and there fought against the whole army, put them to flight,
and pursued them as far as their fortress : and there he sat
down fourteen days. And then the army delivered to him
hostages, with many oaths, that they would leave his
kingdom, and also promised him that their king should
receive bnptism : and this they accordinu^ly fullilled. And
about three weeks after this king Gothrun came to him,
v/ith some thirty men who were of the most distinguislied in
the army, at Aller, wliich is near Athehiey : and the king
was his godfather at baptism ; and his chrism-loosing* was at
Wedmore : and he was twelve days with tlie king; and he
greatly honoured him and his comjtanions with gifts.

A. 879. This year the army went to Cirencester froni

Apparently the removal of the fillet which, covering the chrism on
the forehead. uiu-» bound round the head at cnufirmatiou.


Chippenham, and sat there one year. And that year a
lx)dy of pirates drew together, and sat down at Fulham on
the Thames. And that same year the sun was eclipsed
during one hour of the day.*

A. 880. Tliis year the army went from Cirencester to
East Anglia, and settled in the land, and apportioned it.
And that same year the army, which previously had sat
down at Fulham, went over sea to Ghent in France, and
sat there one year.

A. 881. This year tlie anny went further into France,
and the French fought against them: and then was the
army there horsed after the battle.

A. 882. This year the army went up along the banks of
the Maese far into France, and there sat one year. And
that same year king Alfred went out to sea with his ships,
and fought against the forces of four ships of Danish men,
and took two of the ships, and the men were slain that were
in them ; and the forces of two ships surrendered to him,
and they were sorely distressed and wounded before they
surrendered to him.

A. 883. This year the army went up the Scheldt to
Conde, and sat there one year. And Marinus the pope
then sent `lignum Domini` to king Alfred ; and that same
year Sighelm and Athelstan carried to Rome the alms
which the king had vowed to send thither, and also to
Lidia, to St. Thomas and to St. Bartholomew, when they
sat down against the army at London ; and there, thanks be
to God, they largely obtained the object of their prayer after
the vow.

A. 884. This year the army went up the Somme to
Amiens, and there sat one year. This yearj the benevo
lent bishop Ethelwold died.

A. 885. JThis year the fore-mentioned army divided it-
self into two; the one part went eastward, the other part

The eclipse happened on the 14th of March, 880.

t The account of the death of Ethelwold bishop of Winchester, here
inserted in MS. F., is anticipated a century by the carelessness of the
scribe : the name of his successor in the Latin puts this bevond all doubt.
See A. 984-

I Aaser omits tne erents of A. 884 of the Chronitee, and places those of
885 under that year. At auy rate the foreign tranaactiona are rightly w


to Rochester, and besieged the city, and wrought another
fortress about themselves. And, notwitlistanding tliis, the
townsmen defended the city till king Alfred came out with
his forces. Then went the army to their ships, and aban-
doned their fortress ; and they were there deprived of tlieir
horses, and soon after, in that same manner, departed over
sea. And that same year king Alfred sent a fleet from
Kent to East-Anglia. So soon as they came to the mouth
of the SiDur, there met them sixteen ships of pirates; and
they fought against them, and captured all the ships and
killed the men. As they afterwards return (id homeward
with the booty, a large fleet of pirates met tliem, and then
fought against them that same day, and the Danish-men had
the victory. That same year, before mid-winter, * Charles king
of the French died ; he was killed by a wild boar ; and one
year before this, his brother f died: he too had the western
kingdom : and they were both sons of Louis, who likewise
had the western kingdom, and died that year wlien the sun
was eclipsed : he was son of Charles | whose daughter
Ethelwulf, king of the West- Saxons, had for his queen.
And that same year a large fleet drew together against the
Old Saxons ; and there was a great battle twice in that year,
and the Saxons had the victory, and the Frisians were there
with them. That same year Charles § succeeded to the wes-
tern kingdom, and to all the kingdom on this side the Wen-
ilel-sea [Tuscan Sea], and beyond this sea, in like manner
as his great-grandfather had it, with the exception of the
Lid-wiccas [Bretons]. Charles was Louis`s son ; Louis was
Charles`s brother, who was father of Judith, whom king
Ethelwulf had ; and they were sons of Louis, Louis was
son of the elder Charles, Charles was Pepin`s son. And
that same year died the good Pope Marinus, who, at the
prayer of Alfred king of the West- Saxons, freed the Eng-
lish school; and he sent him great gifts, and part of the
rood on which Christ suffered. And that same year the
army in East-Anglia broke the peace with king Alfred.

A. 8S6. This year the army which before had drawn
eastward, went westward again, and thence up the Seine,
and there took up their winter quarters near the town of
Faris. That same year king Alfred repaired London ; and

* Curlomau. t Luuis U. % The Bald § The FaU


all the English submitted to him, except those who were
under the bondage of the Danish-men ; and then he com-
mitted the town to the keeping of Ethered the ealdorman.

A. 887. This year the army went up through the bcidge
at Paris, and thence up along the Seine as far as the Marne,
and thence up the Marne to Chezy, and then sat down, there,
and on the Yonne, two winters in the two places. And that
same year Charles* king of the French died ; and six weekt
before he died, Arnulf his brother`s son bereaved him of the
kingdom. And then was that kingdom divided into five,
and five kings were consecrated thereto. This, however,
was done by permission of Arnulf : and they said that they
would hold it from his hand, because none of them on the
father`s side was born thereto except him alone. Arnulf
then dwelt in the land east of the Rhine : and Rodulf then
succeeded to the middle kingdom,f and Oda to the western
part, and Beorngar and WithaJ to the land of the Lombards
and to the lands on that side of the mountain : and that they
held in great discord, and fought two general battles, and oft
and many times laid waste the land, and each repeatedly
drove out the other. And that same year that the army
went up beyond the bridge at Paris, Ethelhelm the ealdor-
man § carried the alms of the West-Saxons and of king
Alfred to Rome.

A. 888. This year Beeke the ealdorman carried the alms
of the West- Saxons and of king Alfred to Rome ; and queen
Ethelswith, who was king Alfred`s sister, died on the way
to Rome, and her body lies at Pavia. And that same year
Athelred archbishop of Canterbury, and Ethelwold the eal-
dorman died in the same month.

A. 889. In this year there was no journey to Rome, ex-
cept that king Alfred sent two couriers with letters.

A. 890. This year abbat Bernhelm carried the alms of
the West- Saxons and of king Alfred to Rome. And Goth-
run the Northern king died, whose baptismal name was
Athelstan ; he was king Alfred`s godson, and he abode in
Kast-Anglia, and first settled that country. And that same
year the army went from the Seine to St. Lo, which is be
t`veen Brittany and France ; and the Bretons fought against
tlipm. and had the victory, and drove them out into a river,

Tne Fat, Burgundv J Guido. § Of Wilu.


and drowned many of them. This year Plegmund waa
chosen of God and of all the people to be archbishop of

A. 89 L This year the army went eastward ; and Idng
Arnulf, with the East-Franks and Saxons and Bavarians,
fou{;lit against that part which was mounted before the ships
came up, and put them to flight. And three Scots came to
king Alfred in a boat without any oars from Ireland, whence
tliey had stolen away, because they desired for the love of
God to be in a state of pilgrimage, they recked not where.
The boat in which they came was made of two hides and a
half ; and they took with them provisions sufficient for seven
days ; and then about the seventh day they came on shore in
Cornwall, and soon after went to king Alfred. Thus thej
were named : Dubslane, and Macbeth, and Maelinmun.
And Swinney, the best teacher among the Scots, died.

A. 892. And that same year after Easter, about Rogation
week or before, the star appeared which in Latin is called
conieta; some men say in English that it is a hairy star,
because a long radiance streams from it, sometimes on the
one side, and sometimes on each side.

A. 893. In this year the great army, about wliich we for-
merly spoke,* came again from the eastern kingdom westward
to Boulogne, and there was shipped ; so that they came over
in one passage, horses and all ; and they came to land at
Lirane-mouth with two hundred and fifty ships. This port
is in the eastern part of Kent, at the east end of the great
wood which we call Andred ; the wood is in length from
east to west one hundred and twenty miles, or longer, and
thirty miles broad : the river of which we before spoke flows
out of the weald. On this river they toAved up their shipa
as far as the weald, four miles from the outward harbour,
and there stormed a fortress : within the fortress a few
churls were stationed, and it was in part only constructe(L
Then soon after that Hasten with eighty 8hi})y landed at the
moutli of the Thames, and wrought himself a fortress at
Mihon ; and the other army did the like at Appledore.

A. 894. In this year, that was about a twelve-month after
these had wrought the fortress in the eastern district, the
Nor^h-humbrians and the East- Angles had given oathj to
See back at a.d. 891.


king Alfred, and the East-Angles six hostages ; and never-
theless, contrary to their plighted trotii, as oft as the other
armies went out with all their force, they also went out,
either with tliem or on tiieir own part. On this king Alfred
gathered together his forces, and proceeded until he en-
camped between the two armies, as near as he could for the
wood fastnesses, and for the water fastnesses, so that lie
might be able to reach either of them in case they should
seek any open country. From this time the enemy always
went out along the weald in bands and troops, by whichever
border was at the time without forces : and they also were
sought out by other bands, almost every day, either by day
or night, as well from the king`s force as also from the towns.
The king had divided his forces into two, so that one half
was constantly at home, the other half in the field ; besides
those men whose duty it was to defend the towns. The army
did not come out of their stations with their whole force
oftener than twice : once when they first came to land, be-
fore the forces were assembled ; a second time when they
would go away from their stations. Then had they takei^
much booty, and would at that time go northward over tlie
Thames into Essex towards their ships. Then the king`s
forces outrode and got before them, and fought against them
at Farnham, and put the array to flight, and retook the
booty ; and they fled over the Thames, where there was no
ford ; then up along the Colne into an island. Then the
forces there beset them about so long as they there had any
provisions : but at length they had stayed their term of ser-
vice, and had consumed their provisions ; and the king was
then on his way thitherwards with the division which
warred under him. While he was on his way thither, and
the other force was gone homewards, and the Danish-men
remained there behind, because their king had been wounded
in the battle, so that they could not carry him away, then
those who dwell among tlie North-humbrians and among the
East-Anglians gathered some hundred ships and went about
south ; and some forty siiij)S about to the north, and be-
sieged a fortress in Devonshire by the north sea ; and those
who went about to the south besieged Exeter. When the
king heard that, then turned he westward towards Exeter
with all his force, except a very sciall body of the peopk


eastwaru. These went onwards until thej came to London ;
and then with the townsmen, and the aid wMch came to
them from the west, they went east to Bamfleet. Hasten
was then come there with his band which before sat at
!Milton ; and the great army was also come thereto, which
before sat at Appledore near Limne-mouth. The fortress at
Bamfleet had been ere this constructed by Hasten, and he
was at that time gone out to plunder ; and the great armv
was therein. Then came they thereto, and put the army to
flight, and stormed the fortress, and took all that was within
it, as well the property, as the women, and the children also,
and brought the whole to London ; and all the ships they
either broke in pieces or burned, or brought to London or to
Rochester ; and they brought the wife of Hasten and his
two sons to the king : and he afterwards gave them up to
him again, because one of them was his godson, and the
other Ethered, the ealdorman`s. They had become their
godfathers before Hasten came to Bamfleet, and at that
time Hasten had delivered to him hostages and taken oaths :
and the king had also given him many gifts ; and so like-
wise when he gave up the youth and the woman. But as
soon as they came to Bamfleet, and the fortress was con-
structed, then plundered he that very part of the king`s realm
wliich was in the keeping of Ethered his compeer ; and
again, this second time, he had gone out to plunder that very
same district when his fortress was stormed. Now the king
with his forces had turned westward towards Exeter, as I
said before, and the army had beset the city ; but wlien
he arrived there, then went they to their ships. While the
king was thus busied with the array there, in the west, and!
both the other armies had drawn together at Shoebury in
Essex, and there had constructed a fortress, then both to-
gether went up along the Thames, and a great addition
came to them, as well from the East-Anglians as from tho
North-humbrians. They then went up along the Thames
till they reached the Severn ; then up along the Severn.
Then Ethered the ealdorman, and Ethelm tlie ealdorman,
and Ethelnoth the ealdorman, and the king`s thanes who
were then at home in the fortified places, gathered forces
from every town east of the Parret, and as well west as east
of iStjlwood, and also north of the Thamci- and west of the


Severn, and also some part of the North-Welsh people.
When they had all drawn together, then they came up with
the army at Buttington on the banks of the Severn, and there
beset them about, on either side, in a fastness. When thej
had now sat there many weeks on both sides of the river,
and the king was in the west in Devon, against the fleet,
then were the enemy distressed for want of food ; and hav-
ing eaten a great part of their horses, the others being
starved with hunger, then went they out against the men
who were encamped on the east bank of the river, and fought
against them : and the Christians had the victory. And
Ordhelm a king`s thane was there slain, and also many other
king`s thanes were slain ; and of the Danish-men there was
very great slaughter made ; and that part which got away
thence was saved by fliglit. When they had come into
Essex to their fortress and to their ships, then the survivors
again gathered a great army from among the East-Angl^^s
and the North-humbrians before winter, and committed their
wives and their ships and their wealth to the East- Angles,
and went at one stretch, day and night, until they arrived at
a western city in Wirall, which is called Lega-ceaster
[Chester]. Then were the forces unable to come up with
them before they were within the fortress : nevertheless
they beset the fortress about for some two days, and took all
the cattle that was there without, and slew the men whom
they were able to overtake without the fortress, and burned
all the corn, and with their horses ate it every evening.
And this was about a twelve-month after they first came
hither over sea.

A. 895. And then soon after that, in this year, the army
from Wirall went among the North- Welsh, for they were
unable to stay there : this was because they had been de-
prived both of the cattle and of the corn which they had
plundered. When they had turned again out of North-
Wales, with the booty which they had there taken, then
went they over Nortliuraberland and East-Anglia, in
such wise that the forces could not overtake them before
they cam^ to the eastern parts of the land of Essex, to an
island that is out on the sea, which is called Mersey. And
a,^ the army which had beset Exeter again turned homewar`JU,
theu spoil<^ they the South-Saxons ntar Chichester `, and


the townsmen put them to flight, and slew many hundreds
of tliem, and took some of their ships. Then that same
year, before winter, the Danish-men who had sat down in
iNIersey, towed their ships up the Thames, and thence up the
Lea. Tliis was about two years after they had come hither
over sea.

A. 896. In that same year tlie fore-mentioned army con-
structed a fortress on the Lea, twenty miles above London.
After this, in summer, a great body of the townsmen, and
also of other people, went onwards until they arrived at the
Danish fortress ; and there they were put to flight, and
some four king`s thanes were slain. Then after this, during
harvest, the king encamped near to the town, while the
people reaped the corn, so that the Danish-men might not
deprive them of the crop. Then on a certain day the king
ix)de up alor^ the river, and observed where the river might
be obstructed, so tiiat they would be unable to bring out
their ships. And they then did thus : they constructed two
fortresses on the two sides of the river. When they had
already begun the work, and had encamped before it,
then perceived the army that they should not be able to
bring out their ships. They then abandoned them, and
went across the country till tliey arrived at Bridgenorth by
the Severn ; and there they constructed a fortress. Then
the forces rode westwards after the army : and the men of
London took possession of the ships ; but all which they
could not bring away, they broke up, and those which were
worthy of capture they brought to London : moreover the
Danish-men had committed their wives to the keeping of the
Etxst- Angles before they went out from their fortress. Then
sat they down for the winter at Bridgenorth. This was
about three years after they had come lather over sea to

A. 897. After this, in the summer of this year, the army
broke up, some for East-Anglia, some for North-humbria ;
and they who were moneyless procured themselves ships
there, and went southwards over sea to the Seine. Thanks
be to God, the army had not utterly broken down the Eng-
lish nation ; but during tlie three years it was much mor»3
broken down by the mortality among cattle and among mei\,
aiiv liiodt of aU by tliis, that many of the most eniiuoat


king`s thanes in the land died during the three years ; some
of whom were, iswitlmlf, bishop of Rochester, and Ceol-
ifluud, ealdorman of Kent, and Bertulf, ealdorman o/
Essex, and Wulfred, ealdorman of Hampshire, and Eat-
hard, bishop of Dorchester, and Eadulf, the king`s thane in
Sussex, and Bernwulf, the governor of Winchester, and
Eadulf, the king`s horse-thane, and many also besides these,
though I have named the most distinguished. That same
year the armies from among the East-Anglians and from
among the North-humbrians harassed the land of the West-
Saxons, chiefly on the south coast, by praedatory bands ;
most of all by their esks, which they had built many
years before. Then king Alfred commanded long ships to
be built to oppose the esks ; they were full-nigh twice as
long as the others ; some had sixty oars, and some had more;
they were both swifter and steadier, and also higher than the
others. Tliey were shapen neither like the Frisian nor the
Danish, but so as it seemed to him they would be most efficient.
Then some time in the same year, there came six ships to the
Isle of Wight, and there did much harm, as well as in Devon,
and elsewhere on the sea-coast. Then the king commanded
nine of the new ships to go thither, and they obstructed their
passage from the port towards tlie outer sea. Then went
tliey with three ef their ships out against them ; and three
lay in the upper paTt of the port in the dry ; for the men
were gone ashore. Then took they two of the tliree
ships at the outer part of the port, and killed the men, and
the other ship escaped j in that also the men were killed ex-
cept five : they got away because the other ships were
aground. They also were aground very disadvantageously :
three lay aground on that side of the deep on which the
Danish ships were aground, and all the rest upon the other
side, so that no one of them could get to the others. But
when the water had ebbed many furlongs from the ships,
then the Danish-men went from their three ships to the
other three which were left by the tide on their side, antl
then they there fought against them. There was slain Lu-
cumon, the king`s reeve, and Wulfheard, the Frisian, and
Ebb, the Frisian, and Ethelere, the Frisian, and Ethelfertli,
the king`s neat-herd, and of all the men, Frisians and Eng-
lish, seventy-two ; and of the Danish-men, one hundi`cd and


twenty. Then, however, the flood-tide came to the Danish
6hip3 before the Christians could shove theirs off, and they
therefore rowed them out : nevertheless, they were damaged
to such a degree that they could not row round the Sussex
land ; and there the sea cast two of them on shore, and the
men were led to the king at Winchester ; and he commanded
them to be there hanged : and the men who were in the
single ship came to East-Anglia, sorely wounded. That
same summer no less than twenty ships, with their crews,
wholly perished upon the south coast. That same year died
Wulfric, the king`s horse-thane ; he was also " Wealh-

A. 898. In this year died Ethelm, ealdorman of Wiltshire,
nine days before midsummer ; and tliis year died Elstan,
who was bishop of London.

A. 899. 900.

A. 90L This year died Alfred, the son of Ethelwulf, six
days before the mass of All Saints. He was king over the whole
English nation, except that part which was under the do-
minion of the Danes ; and he held the kingdom one year
and a half less than thirty years. And then Edward his
son succeeded to the kingdom. Then Ethelwald, the ethe-
ling, his uncle`s son, seized the castle at Wimborne* and that at
Twineham,t without leave of the king and of his " witan."
Then rode the king with his forces until he encamped at
Badbury, near Wimborne ; and Ethelwald sat within the
vill, with the men who had submitted to him ; and he had
obstructed all the approaches towards him, and said that he
would do one of two things — or there live, or there lie.
But notwithstanding that, he stole away by night, and
sought the army in North-humbria ; and they received him
for their king, and became obedient to him. And the king
commanded that he should be ridden after ; but they were
unable to overtake him. They then beset the woman whom
he had before taken, without the king`s leave, and against
the bishop`s command ; for she had previously been conse-
crated a nun. And in this same year Ethelred, who was
eaidormun of Devonshire, died, tcur weeks before king


t Chrij^church, New Forest aivision of Southampton.


A. 902. And that samo year was the battle at the Holme,
between the Kentish-men and the Danish-men.

A. 902. This year Elswitha died.

A. 903. This year died Athulf, the ealdorman, brother of
Els"v^`^tha, king Edward`s mother ; and Virgilius, abbat of
tlie Scots ; and Grimbald,the mass-priest, on the 8th before the
Ides of July. And this same year was t]w consecration of
the New-minster at Winchester, and vSt. Judoc`s advent.

A. 904. This year Ethelwald came hither over sea with
the ships that he was able to get, and he was submitted to in
Essex. This year the moon was eclipsed.

A. 905. This year Ethelwald enticed the army in East-
Anglia to break the peace, so that they ravaged over all the
land of Mercia until they came to Cricklade, and there they
went over the Thames, and took, as well in Bradon as
thereabout, all that they could lay hands on, and then turned
homewards again. Then king Edward went after them, as
speedily as he could gather his forces, and overran all their
land between the dikes and the Ouse, all as far north as the
fens. When, after this, he would return thence, then
commanded he it to be proclaimed through his whole force,
that they should all return together. Then the Kentish-men
remained there behind, notwithstanding his orders, and
seven messengers whom he had sent to them. Then the
army there came up to them, and there fought them : and
there Siwulf the ealdorman, and Sigelm the ealdorman, and
Eadwold the king`s thane, and Kenwulf the abbat, and
Sigebright son of Siwulf, and Eadwold son of Acca, were
slain, and like^vise many with them, though I have named
the most distinguished. And on the Danish side were slain
Eohric their king, and Ethelwald tlie etheling, who liad
enticed him to break the peace, and Byrtsige son of Brith-
noth the etheling, and Ysopk the `hold` [governor?], and Os-
kytel the hold, and very many with them, whom we are no\J^
unable to name. And there was great slaughter made on
either hand ; and of the Danish-men there were more slain,
though they had possession of the place of carnage. A nd
Elhswitha died that same year. This year a comet appeared
on the thirteenth before the Kalends of Novembei.

A- 906. In this year died Alfred, who was governor of


Bath. And in the same year peace was conclui`.fcd at Ilitch-
inirford, even as king Edward ordained, as -well with the
East- Angles as with the North-humbrians.

A. 906. This year king Edward, from necessity, concluded a peace both
s`itli the army of East-Anglia and of North-humbria.

A. 907. This year Chester was repaired.

A. 908. This year died Denewulf, who was bishop at

A. 909. This year St. Oswald`s body was removed from
Eardney into Mercia. In this year the Angles and the
Danes fought at Tootenhall on the eighth before the Ides
of August, and the Angles obtained the victory. And that
same year Ethelfled built the fortress at Bramsbury.

A. 910. This year Frithstan succeeded to the bishopric
at Winchester ; and, after that, bishop Asser died ; he was
bishop at Sherborne. And that same year king Edward
sent out a force both of West-Saxons and of Mercians, and
they greatly spoiled the army of the north, as well of men
as of every kind of cattle, and slew many of the Danish-
men : and they were therein five weeks.

A.. 910. This year the army of the Angles and of the Danes fought at
Tootenhall. And Ethelred ealdorof the Mercians died ; and king Edward
t0(jk possession of London, and of Oxford, and of all the lands which
owed obedience thereto. And a great fleet came hither from the ^outh,
from the Lidwiccas^ [Brittany,] and greatly ravaged by the Severn ; but
tliey there, afterwards, almost all perished.

A. 9n. This year the army among the North-humbrians
broke the peace, and despised whatever peace king Edward
and his `witan` offered them, and overran the land of Mercia.
And the king had gathered too:ether some hundred ships, and
was then in Kent, and the ships went south-east along the
sea-coast towards him. Then thought the army that the
greatest part of his force was in the ships, and that they
should be able to go, unfought, wheresoever they chose
AV^hen the king learned that, that they were gone out to
plunder, then sent he his forces after them, both of the West-
Saxons and of the Mercians ; and they overtook the army as
they were on their way homewards, and then fought against
tl»em, and put them to flight, and slew many thousands ot
them ; and there were slain king Ecwils, and king Halfdene
end Ohter the earl, and Scurf the earl, and OtliuU* th`i hold,


anthe hold, and Osferth the collector and Guthferth the hold, and
A^gmund the hold, and Guthferth,

A. 911. Then the next year after this died Ethelred lord of the

A. 912. This year died Ethered ealdorman of tlie
IMcrcians ; and king Edward took possession of London and
of Oxford, and of all the lands which owed obedience thereto.
This year Ethelfled lady of tlie Mercians came to Scaergate
on the holy eve, ` Livention of the Holy Cross,` and tiiere
built the fortress ; and the same year, that at Bridgenorth.

A. 913. In this year, about Martinmas,* king Edward
commanded the northern fortress to be built at Hertford,
between the Memer, the Benewic, and the Lea. And then
after that, during tlie summer, between Rogation-days and
midsummer, king Edward went with some of his forces to
Maldon in Essex, and there encamped, whilst the fortress at
Witham was wrought and built ; and a good part of the
people who were before under the dominion of the Danish-
men submitted to him : and in the meanwhile some part of
his force constructed the fortress at Hertford, on the south side
of the Lea. This year, by the help of God, Ethelfled lady
of the Mercians went with all the Mercians to Tamworth,
and there built the fortress early in the summer ; and after
this before Lammas, tliat at Stafford.

A. 914. Then after this, in the next year, that at
Eddesbury, early in the summer ; and afterwards, in the
same year, late in harvest, that at Warwick.

A. 915. Then after this, in the next year, after mid-
winter, that at Chirk, and that at Warburton ; and
that same year, before mid-winter, that at Runcorn.

A. 9)5. This year was Warwick built.

A. 916. This year abbat Egbert was guiltlessly slain, be-
fore midsummer, on the sixteenth before the Kalends of July :
the same day was the feast of the martyr St. Ciricius and
his fellows. And about three days after this, Ethelfled sent
her forces among the Welsh, and stormed Brecknock,

* Florence of Worcester seems to understand this as relating to the
festival of St. Martin of Tours, 11 Nov. and places Maldon, ficc. 48 \wii dM
tke events of 917 of the text, under the vear 914



and there took the king`s wife, and eorae four and thirty

A. 917. In tliia year, after Easter, the army rode forth
from Northampton and Leicester, and broke the peace, and
slew many men at Hockerton, and there about. And then very
speedily after that, when the one came home, then they ^rot
ready another troop which rode out against Leighton : and then
the inhabitants were aware of them, and fought against them,
and put them to full flight, and retook all which they had
seized, and also a great portion of their horses and of thei?
weapons. This year, before Lammas, Ethelfled, lady of tlie
^Mercians, God helping her, got possession of the fortress which
is called Derby, witli all that owed obedience thereto ; and
there also were slain, within the gates, four of her thanes,
which to her was a cause of sorrow.

A. 918. This year, in the early part of the year, by God`s
help, she got into her power, by treaty, the fortress at Leicester,
and the greater part of the army which owed obedience
thereto became subject to her; and the people of York had
also covenanted with her, some having given a pledge, and
some having bound themselves by oath, that they would be
at her command. In this year a great fleet came over hither
from the south, from the Lidwiccas, [Brittany,] and with it
two earls, Ohtor and Rhoald : and they went west about till
they arrived within the mouth of the Severn, and they
spoiled the North- Welsh every^vhere by the sea-coast where
they then pleased. And in Ai`chenfield they took bishop*
Cameleac, and led him with them to their ships ; and tlien
king Edward ransomed him afterwards with forty pounds.
Then after that, the whole army landed, and would have gone
once more to plunder about Archenfield. Then met them the
men of Hereford and of Gloucester, and of the nearest towns,
and fought against them and put them to flight, and slew the
earl Rhoald, and a brother of Ohter the other earl, and many
of tlie army, and drove them into an inclosure, and there
beset them about, until they delivered hostages to them tliat
they would depart from king Edward`s dominion. And the
king had so ordered it that his forces sat down against them
on the iouth side of Ibevern-moutli, from tlie Welsh coast
Tijestwai`d, to the mouth of the Avon eastward; so that on
Of Llandaff.


that side tliey durst not anpvliere attempt the hmd. Tlion,
nevertheless, they stole away by night on some two occasion.^ ;
cnce, to the east of Watchet, and another time to Porlock.
But they were beaten on either occasion, so that few of tlu-m
got away, except those alone who there swam out to tlie
ships. And then they sat down, out on the island of Bradan-
reUce, [Flat-holms,] until such time as they were quite desti-
tute of food ; and many men died of hunger, because they
could not obtain any food. Then they went thence to Deo-
mod, [S. Wales,] and then out to Ireland : and this was
during harvest. And then after that, in the same year,
before Martinmas, king Edward went with his forces to
Buckingham, and there sat down four weeks ; and, ere he
went thence, he erected both the forts on either side of the
river. And Thurkytel the earl sought to him to be his lord,
and all the captains, and almost all the chief men who owed
obedience to Bedford, and also many of those who owed
obedience to Northampton.

A. 918. But very shortly after they had become so, she died at Tarn-
worth, twelve days before midsummer, the eighth year of her having rule
and right lordship over the Mercians ; and her body lies at Gloucester,
witliin the east porch of St. Peter`s church. [See end of a.d, 922.]

A. 918. This year died Ethelfled the lady of the Mercians.

A. 919. In this year, before Martinmas, king Edward
went with Ms forces to Bedford, and gained the town ; and
almost all the townsmen who formerly dwelt there submitted
to him: and he sat down there four weeks, and commanded
the town to be built on the south side of the river before he
went thence.

A. 919. This year also the daughter of Ethelred, lord of the Mercians,
was deprived of all dominion over the Mercians, and carried into Wessex,
three weeks before mid-Avinter : she was called Elfwina.

A. 920. In this year, before midsummer, king Edward
went to Maldon, and built the town, and fortified it before he
departed thence. And that same year Thurkytel the earl
went over sea into France, together with such men as would
Collow him, with the peace and aid of king Edward.

A. 921. In this year, before Easter, king Edward gavo
orders to take possession of the town at Towcester, and to
fortify it. And again, after that, in the same year, durinj^
Rogation days, he commanded the town at Wiijmore to


be built. That same summer, between Lammas and mid-
summer, the army from Northampton and from Leicester,
and thence north, broke the peace, and went to Towcester,
and fought against tlie town the whole day ; and they thought
that they should be able to take it by storm. But, neverthe-
less, the people who were within defended it until a larger
force came to them : and then they departed from the town
and went away. Then, again very soon after that, they went
out once more by night with a predatory band, and came
upon men who were unprepared, and took no small number
as well of men as of cattle between Burnham wood and Ayles-
bury. At that same time went out the army from Hunting-
don and from the East- Angles, and constructed the fortress
at Tempsford, and abode, and built there ; and forsook the
other at Huntingdon, and thought that from thence they
could, by warfare and hostility, get more of the land again.
And tliey went forth until they arrived at Bedford : and
tlien the men who were there within went out against them,
and fought with them and put them to flight, and slew a
good part of them. Then again, after that, a large army
once more drew together from East-Anglia and from Mercia,
and went to the town at Wigmore, and beset it round
about, and fought against it the greater part of the day,
and took the cattle thereabout. And nevertheless, the
men who were within the town defended it ; and then the
army left the town and went away. Then, after that, in
tlie same summer, much people, within king Edward`s
dominion, drew together out of the nearest towns, who could
go tliither, and went to Tempsford, and beset the town, and
fought against it till they took it by storm, and slew the king,
and Toglos the earl, and Mann the earl, his son, and his
brother, and all those who Avere there within and would de-
f<;nd themselves; and took the others, and all that was
therein. Then, very soon after this, much people drew
together during harvest, as well from Kent as from Surrey
and from Essex, and from each of the nearest towns, and
went to Colchester, and beset the town, and fought against
it until they mastered it, and slew all the people there within,
and took all that was there, except the men who fled away
over the wall. Then after that, once again during the
«!a.»ne harvest, a large army drew together out of Eust-Anglia,


AS well of the land-force as of the pirates whom they liad en-
ticed to their aid : and they thought that they shoukl be able
to avenge their wrongs. And they went to Maldon, and
beset the town, and fought against it until more aid came to
the help of the townsmen from without ; and then the army
left the town and went away. And then the men from the
town went out after them, and those also who came from
without to their aid ; and they put the army to flight, and
slew many hundreds of them, as well of the pirates as of
the others. Then, very shortly after, during the same
harvest, king Edward went with the forces of the West-
Saxons to Passoham, and sat down there while they encom-
passed the town at Towcester with a stone wall. And Thur-
ferth the earl, and the captains, and all the army which owed
obedience to Northampton, as far north as the Welland, sub-
mitted to him, and sought to him to be their lord and pro-
tector. And when one division of the forces went home,
tlien another went out, and took possession of the town of
Huntingdon, and repaired and rebuilt it, by command of
king Edward, where it had been previously demolished ; and
all who were left of the inhabitants of that country submitted
to king Edward, and sought his peace and his protection.
And after this, still in the same year, before Martinmas, king
Edward went with the forces of the West- Saxons to Col-
chester, and repaired the town, and rebuilt it where it had
been before broken down; and much people submitted to
him, as well among the East-Anglians as among the East
Saxons, who before were under the dominion of the Danes.
And all the army among the East-Anglians swore union
with him, that they would all that he would, and would
observe peace towards all to which the king should grant his
peace, both by sea and by land. And the army which owed
obedience to Cambridge chose him specially to be their
lord and protector ; and confirmed it with oaths, even as he
then decreed it. This year king Edward built the town at
Gladmouth. This year king Sihtric slew Neil his brother.

A. 922. In this year, between Rogation days and mid-
summer, king Edward went with liis forces to Stamford,
and commanded the town to be built upon the south side of
tlie river: and all the people which owed obedience to the
Qorthera town submitted to him, and sought to him to be


their lord. And then, during the sojourn which he there
made, Ethelfled his sister died there, at Tamworth, twelve
days before midsummer. And then he took possession of
the town at Tamworth ; and all the people of the land of
Mercia, who before vv^ere subject to Ethelfled, submitted to
him ; and the kings of the North- Welsh, Howel, and Cle-
dauc, and Jothwel, and all the North- Welsh race, sought to
him to be their lord. Then went he thence to Nottingham
and took possession of the town, and commanded it to be
repaired and occupied as well by English as by Danes.
And all the people who were settled in Mercia, as well Dan-
ish as English, submitted to him.

A. 923. In this year, after harvest, king Edward went
with his forces to Thelwall, and commanded the town to be
built, and occupied, and manned; and commanded another
force also of Mercians, the while that he sat there, to take
possession of Manchester in North-humbria, and repair and
man it. This year died archbishop Plegmund. This year
king Reginald won York.

A. 924. In this year, before midsummer, king Edward
went with his forces to Nottingham, and commanded the
town to be built on the south side of the river, over against
the other, and the bridge over the Trent, between the two
towns: and then he went thence into Peakland, to Bake-
well, and commanded a town to be built nigh thereunto,
and manned. And then chose him for father and for lord,
the king of the Scots and the whole nation of the Scots, and
Reginald and the son of Eadulf and all those who dwell in
North-humbria, as well English as Danes, and North-men
and others, and also the king of the Strath-clyde Britons,
and all the Strath-clyde Britons.

A. 924. This year Edward was chosen for father and for lord by the
king of the Scots, and by the Scots, and king Reginald, and by all the
Nuith-humbrians, and also the king of the Strath-clyde Britons, and by
aJ the Strath-clyde Britons.

A. 924. This year king Edward died among the Mercians at Famdon ;
and very shortly, about sixteen days after this, Elward his son died at
Oxford; and their bodies lie at Winchester. And Athelstan was chosen
king by the Mercians, and consecrated at Kingston. And he gave his sister
to Ofsae [OthoJ, son of the king of the Old-Saxona.

A. 925. This year king Edward died, and Athelstan his
son suc^`eeded to the kingdom. And St. Dunstan waa bora


and Wulfhelm succeeded to tlie archbishopric of Canterbury
"i`liis year king Athelstan and Sihtric king of the Nortii-
humbrians came together at Tamworth, on the 3d before the
Kalends of February ; and Athelstan gave him his sister.

A. 925. This year Bishop Wulflielm was consecrated. And that same
yeai- king Edward died.

A. 926. This year fiery lights appeared in the north part
of the heavens. And Sihtric perished : and king Athel-
stan obtained the kingdom of the North-liumbrians. And
he ruled all the kings who were in this island : first, Howel
king of the West- Welsh ; and Constantine king of the Scots ;
and Owen king of the Monmouth people ; and Aldred, son of
Ealdulf, of Bambrough: and they confirmed the peace by
pledge, and by oaths, at the place which is called Eamot,
on the 4tli before the Ides of July ; and they renounced all
idolatry, and after that submitted to him in peace.

A. 927. This year king Athelstan expelled king Gutli-
frith. And this year Archbishop Wulfhelm went to Rome.

A. 928. William succeeded to Normandy, and held it
fifteen years.

A. 929. 930.

A. 93 L Tins year Brinstan was ordained bishop of Win-
chester on the 4th before the Kalends of June ; and he held
the bishopric two years and a half.

A. 931. This year died Frithstan bishop of Winchester, and Brinstan
was blessed in his place.

A. 932. This year died bishop Frithstan.

A. 933. This year Edwin the etlieling was drowned at
sea. This year king Athelstan went into Scotland, as well
with a land army as with a fleet, and ravaged a great part
of it. And bishop Brinstan died at Winchester on liie
feast of A 11- Hallows.

A. 934. This year bishop Elphege succeeded to th«j
bishopric of Winchester.

A. 935. 936.

A. 937.
Here Athelstan, kins:.

ot` earls the lord,

(tf heroes the bracelet -giver,

and his brother eke,

Edmund etheling,



in battle won

with edges of swords

near Brumby.

The board-walls they clove,

they hewed the war-lindens,

Haraora lafan`
offspring of Edward,
such was their noble nature
from their ancestors,
that they in battle oft
`gainst every foe
the land defended,
boards and homes.
The foe they crushed,
the Scottish people
and the shipmen
fated feU.

The field Mseniede`
with warriors` blood,
since the sun up
at morning-tide,
mighty planet,
glided o`er grounds,
God`s candle bright,
the eternal Lord`s,
till the noble creature
sank to her settle.
There lay many a warrior
by javelins strewed,
northern man
over shield shot ;
so the Scots eke,
weary, war-sad.
West- Saxons onwards
throughout the day,
in bands,

pursued the footsteps
of the loathed nations.
They hewed the fugitives
behind, amain,
with swords mill-sharp.

Mercians refused not
the hard hand-play
to any heroes
who with Anlaf,
over the ocean,
in the ship`s bosom,
this land sought
felted to the fight.
Five lay

on the battle-stead,
youthful kings,
by swords in slumber laid:
so seven eke
of Anlaf `s earls ;
of tlie army countless,
shipmen and Scots.
There was made flee
the North-men`s chieftain,
by need constrained,
to the ship`s prow
with a little band.
The bark drove afloat :
the king dejiarted
on the fallow flood,
his life preserved.
So there eke the sage
came by flight
to his country north,
hoary warrior .
He had no cause to exult
I in the communion of swords.
Here was his kindred baud
of friends o`erthrown
on the folk-stead,
in battle slain ;
and his son he left
on the slaughter-place,
mangled with wounds,
young in the fight :
he had no cause to boast.



hero grizzly-haired,

of the bill-cLishing,

the okl deceiver ;

nor Aidat" the moor, {^mies ;

with the remnant of their ar-

they had no cause to laugh

that they in war`s works

the better men were

in the battle-stead,

at the conflict of banners,

meeting of spears,

concourse of men,

trailic of weapons ; [field

that they on the slaughter-

with Edward`s

oir>pring played.

The North-men departed
in their nailed barks ;
bloody relic of darts,
on roaring ocean
o`er the deep water
Dublin to seek,
again Ireland,
shamed in mind.

So too the brothers,
both together,
king and etheling,
their country sought.
West- Saxons` land,

in the war exulting.

They left behind them,

the corse to devour,

the sallowy kite

and the swarthy raven

with horned nib,

and the dusky ` pada,*

erne white-tailed,

the corse to enjoy,

greedy war-hawk,

and the grey beast,

wolf of the wood.

Carnage greater has not betsn

in this island

ever yet

of people slain,

before this,

by edges of swords,

as books us say,

old writers,

since from the east hither,

Angles and Saxons

came to land,

o`er the broad seas

Britain sought,

mighty war-smiths,

the Welsh o`ercame,

earls most bold,

this earth obtained.

A. 937. This year king Athelstan and Edmund his brother led a forcf
to Brumby, and mere fouglit a,ii;ainst Anlaf ; and, Christ helping, ha^
the victory: and they there slew five kings and seven earls,

A. 938. 939.

A. 940. This year king Athelstan died at Gloucester on
the 6th before the Kalends of November, about forty-one years,
except one day, after king Alfred died. And Edmund the
etheling, his brother, succeeded to the kingdom, and he was
then eighteen years of age ; and king Athelstan reigne-d
burteen years and ten weeks. Then was Wulfhelra arch-
biniiop in Kent.

A. 941, This year the North-humbrians were faLw to

76 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, a. i>. 942-945.

their plighted troth, and chose Anlaf of Lreland to be tliei!


Here Edmund king,
ruler of Angles,
protector of men,
^Nlercia ol>tained,
dear deed-doer,
as the Dor flows,
course of the white-well,
and Huraber`s river,
broad sea-stream.
Five towns,
and Lincoln,
and Nottingham,

so Stamford eke,

and Derby,

to Danes were erew^hiie,

under North-men,

by need constrained,

of heathen men

in captive chains,

a long time ;

until again redeemed them,

for his worthiness,

the bulwark of warriors,

offspring of Edward,

Edmund king.

A. 941. This year kins: Edmund received king at baptism ; and
that same year, a good long space after, he received king Reginald at the
bishop`s hands.

A. 942. This year king *Anlaf died.

A. 943. This year Anlaf stormed Tamworth, and great
carnage -was on either hand ; and the Danes had the victory,
and much booty they led away with them : there during the
pillage was Wulfrun taken. This year king Edmund be-
sieged king Anlaf and archbishop Wulfstan in Leicester ;
and he would have taken them, were it not that they broke
out by night from the town. And, after that, Anlaf acquired
king Edmund`s friendship ; and king Edmund then re-
ceived king Anlaf at baptism, and he royally gifted him.
And that same year, after a good long time, he received king
Reginald at the bishop`s hands. This year king l-^dmund
delivered Glastonbury to St. Dunstan, where he afterwards
became the first abbat.

A. 944. This year king Edmund subdued all Noi-thnm-
berland under his power, and expelled two kings, Anlaf.
gon of Sihtric, and Reginald, son of Guthferth.

A. 945. This year king Edmund ravaged all Cumber-
land, and granted it all to Malcolm king of the Scots, on the

* See Hen. Huntingdon and Simeon of llurhnm. A. f`41 There were
lev.Tii! chiefs of that name at this period : Anlaf the son of (jiutlUerthj
Afvl^ the ion of Siliiricj uud Anlaf Cuirau, mentioned A. 948.


condition, that lie should be his fellow-worker as well by sea
as bj land.

A. 946. This year kinc^ Edmund died on St. Augustine`s
mass-day. That was widely known how he his days ended :
that Leofa stabbed him at Puckle-church. And Aeltieda
at Damerham, Elgar`s daughter, the ealdorman, was then
liis queen : and he had the kingdom six years and a hali".
And then after him his brother Edred the etheling suc-
ceeded to the kingdom, and subdued all Northumberland
under his power : and the Scots gave him oaths, that they
would all that he would.

A. 947. This year king Edred came to Tadden`s-clifF,
and there Wulfstan the archbishop and all the North-hum-
brian " witan " plighted their troth to the king : and within
a little while they belied it all, both pledge and also oaths.

A. 948. This year king Edred ravaged all Northum-
berland, because they had taken Eric to be their king : and
then, during the pillage, was the great minster burned at
Ripon that St. Wilfrid built. And as the king went
homewards, then the army of York overtook him : the rear
of the king`s forces was at Chesterford ; and there they
made great slaughter. Then was the king so wroth that he
would have marched his forces in again and wholly destroyed
the land. When the North-humbrian "witan" understood
that, then forsook they Eric, and made compensation for
the deed with king Edred.

A. 949. This year Anlaf Curran came to Northumber-

A. 950.

A. 95 L This year died Elphege bishop of Winchester, on
St. Gregory`s mass-day. This same blessed St. Dunstan. . . .

A. 952. In this year king Edred commanded archbishop
Wulfstan to be brought into the fastness at Jedburgh,
because he had been oft accused to the king : and in this
year also the king commanded great slaughter fo be made in
the town of Thetford, in revenge of the abbat Edelm, whom
they had before slain. This year the North-humbrians ex-
pelled king Anlaf, and received Eric, Harold`s son.

A. 953.

A. 954. This year the North-humbrians expelled Eric,
and Edi-ed obtained the kingdom of the North-humbriaii!i,



Thh year archbishop Wulfstan again obtained a bishoprio
at Dorchester.

A. 955. This 3^ear died king Edred on St. Clement`s
mass-day, at Frorae, and he rests in the Old-minster [Win-
chester] ; and he reigned nine years and a half. And then
Kd\vy succeeded to the kingdom, king Edmund`s and St.
Elfgiva`a son. And he banished St. Dunstan out of the

A. 955. And Edwy succeeded to the kingdom of the West-Saxons, and
Ed„Mr his brother succeeded to the kingdom of the Mercians : and they
were the sons of King Edmund and of S. Elfj;iva.

A. 956.

A. 957. This year died Wulfstan archbishop of York, on
the 1 7th before the Kalends of January, and he was buried at
Oundle. And in the same year abbat Dunstan was driven
away over sea. This year Edgar the etheling succeeded to
the kingdom of the Mercians.

A. 958. In this year arclibishop Odo* separated king
Edwy and Elfgiva, because they were too nearly rehited.
This year died king Edwy on tlie Kalends of October ; and
Edgar his brother succeeded to the kingdom, as well of tlie
West-Saxons as of the Mercians, and of the North-hum-
brians ; and he was then sixteen years of age.

In his days

it prospered well,

and God him granted

that he dwelt in peace

the while that he lived ;

and he did as behoved him,

diligently he earned it.

lie upreared God`s glory wide,

and loved God`s law,

and bettered the public peace,

mo.^t of the kings

who were before him

in man`s memory.

And God him eke so helped,

that kings and earls

gladly to him bowed,

taid were submissive

to that that he willed ;

and without war

he ruled all

that himself would.

He was wide

tiiroughout nations

greatly honoured,

because he honoured

God`s name earnestly,

and God`s law pondered

much and oft,

and God`s glory reared

wide and far,

and wisely counselled,

most oft, and ever,

for God and for tlu: world,

of all Ids people.

Of Canterbury.


One misdeed he did

and harmful people

allured to this land.
But God grant him
that his good deeds
be more availing
than his misdeeds,
for his soul`s protection
on the lono;some course.


all too much
that he foreign
vices loved,
and heathen customs
within this land
brought too oft,
and outlandish men
liither enticed,

A. 959. This year Edgar sent after St. Dunstan, and
gave him the bishopric at Worcester ; and afterwards the
bishopric at London.

A. 960.

A. 961. This year departed Odo the Good, archbishop ;
and St. Dunstan succeeded to the archbishopric.

A. 962. This year died Elfgar, the king`s kinsman, in
I^evonshire, and his body rests at Wilton. And king Sif-
ferth killed himself, and his body lies at Wimborne. And
then, within the year, there was a great mortality, and the
great fever was in London ; and Paul`s minster was burnt,
imd that same year was again built up. In tliis same year
Atliehnod the mass-priest went to Rome, and there died, on
the 18th before the Kalends of September.

A. 963. This year died Wulfstan the deacon, on Childer-
mass-day, and after that died Gyric the mass-priest. In this
same year abbat Ethelwold* succeeded to the bishopric at
\\`inchester, and he was consecrated on the vigil of St.
Andrew : it was Sunday that day. In the year after he was
consecrated, then made he many minsters, and drove the
clerks out of the bishopric, because they would not observe
any rule, and he set monks there. He made there two abba-
cies ; one of monks, one of nuns ; all which was within
Winchester. Afterwards, then came he to the king, Edgar,
and begged of him that he would give him all the minsters
which heathen men had formerly broken down, because he
would restore them: and the king cheerfully granted it. Ajid
then the bishop came first to Ely, w^here St. Etheldrida lies,
and caused the minster to be made : then he gave it to one
of his monks, who was named Britnoth. He then conse-
crated him abbat, a:id there set monks to serve God where
« Of Abingdon,


previously had been nuns : he bought then many villages
of the king, and made it very rich. After that cams bishop
Etlielwold to the minsrer which was called jMedeshamstede,
which formerly had lieeii destroyed by heathen men : he
found nothing there but old walls and wild woods. There
found he, hidden in the old wails, wa-itings that abbat
Hedda had erewhile written, how king Wulfhere and
Ethelred his brother had built it, and how they had freed it
against king and against bishop, and against all secular ser-
vices, and how the pope Agatlio had confirmed the same by
his rescript, and the archbishop Deus-dedit. Then caused
he the minster to be built ; and set there an abbat, who was
called Adulf, and caused monks to be there where before
was nothing. Then came he to the king, and caused him
to look at the writings wdiich before were found ; and the
king answered then and said :

" I, Edgar, grant and give to-day, before God and before
the archbishop Dunstan, freedom to 8t. Peter`s minster,
Lledeshamstede, from king and from bishop : and all the
villages which lie thereto ; that is to say, Eastfield, and
Dodthorp, and Eye, and Fasten. And thus I free it, that
no bishop have there any command, without the abbat of the
minster. And I give the town which is called Oundle, with
all which thereto lieth, that is to say, that which is called
*the Eight-hundreds,` and market and toll, so freely, that
neither king, nor bishop, nor earl, nor sheriff, have there
any command, nor any man except the abbat alone, and him
whom he thereto appointeth. And I give to Christ and St.
Peter, and through the prayer of bishop Etlielwold, these
lands ; that is to say, Barro, Warmington, Ashton, Ketter-
ing, Castor, Eylesworth, Walton, Witherington, Eye, Thorp ;
and one moneyer in Stamford. These lands, and all the
others that belong to the minster, them declare I free : that
is, with sack and sock, toll and team, and infangthief ; these
rights, and all others, them declare I the shire of Christ and St.
Peter. And I give the two parts of Whittlesey-mere, wnth the
waters and with the wears and fens, and so through Meer-
lade straight to the water which is called Nen, and so east-
ward to King`s-delf. And I will that a market be in the
game town, and that no other be between St:imlbrd and Hun
tingdon. And I will that the toll be thus given : first, from>3. THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 81

Wliittlesey-mere all as far as the king`s toll of Norman-cross-
hundred, and then back again iVom Whittlesey-niere, through
Meerhide, straight to the Nen, and so as the water runneth
to Crovvland, and from Crowland to Must, and from Must
to King`s-delii and to Whittlesey-mere. And I will that all
liberties, and all the remissions tliat my predecessors have
given, that they stand ; and I sign and confirm it with
Christ`s rood-token." y^

Then Dunstan the archbishop of Canterbury answered,
and said : "I grant that all the things which here are given
and spoken of, and all the things which thy predecessors and
mine have conceded, those will I that they stand ; and who-
soever this breaketh, then give I him the curse of God, and
of all saints, and of all ordained heads, and of myself, unless
he come to repentance. And I give, in acknowledgment, tc
St. Peter, my mass-hackel, and my stole, and my ` reef,` for
the service of Chi-ist." "I, Oswald, archbishop of York,
assent to all these words by tlie holy rood which Christ suf-
fered on.">^ "I, Ethelwold, bishop, bless all who shall
observe this ; and I excommunicate all who shall break this,
unless he come to repentance." Here was Elfstan bishop,
Athulf bishop, and Eskwi abbat, and Osgar abbat, and
Ethelgar abbat, and Elfere the ealdorman, Ethelwin the
ealdorman, Britnoth ; Oslac the ealdorman, and many other
great men : and all assented to it, and all signed it with
Christ`s cross, y^ This was done after the birth of our Lord
nine hundred and seventy-two years, of the king`s reign the
sixteenth year.

Then the abbat Aldulf bought lands, numerous and many,
then greatly enriched the minster withal ; and then was
he there so long as until the archbishop Oswald of York
was dead, and then he was chosen archbishop. And then,
soon, another abbat was chosen of the self-same minster, who
was called Kenulf : he was afterwards bishop at Winchester.
And he first made the wall about the minster : then gave lie
that to name Peterborough, which before was calLed Medes-
hamstede: he was there until he was appointed bishop
at Winchester. Then anotlier abbat was chosen of the self-
same minster, who was called Elfsy : Elfsy was then abbat,
from that time, fifty years. He took up St. Kyneburg and
bt. Kyneswith, who lay at Ctistor. and St. Tibba, who lay at


Rvhall, and brought them to Peterborough, and made aa
oiiering of them all to St. Peter in one day ; and pre;:>erved
them all the while he was there.

A. 963. Tliis year, by king Edgar, St. Ethelwold was chosen to the
hishoprick at Winchester. And the archbishop of Canterbury, St. Dun-
Btan, consecrated him bishop on the first Sunday of Advent ; that vvaa on
tlie 3rd before the Kalends of December.

A. 964. This year king Edgar expelled the priests at
Winchester from the Old-minster and from the New-mi iister,
and from Chertsey, and from Milton, and filled them with
monks ; and he appointed abbat Ethelgar abbat to the New-
mi nster, and Ordbert to Chertsey, and Cyneward to Milton.

A. 9G4. This year were the canons driven out of the OUI-minster by
kiny; Edgar, and also from the New-minster, and from Chertsey and from
Milton ; and he appointed thereto monks and abbats : to the New-minster
Eihelgar, to Chertsey Ordbert, to Milton Cyneward.

A. 965. In this year king Edgar took Elfrida for his
queen ; she was daughter of Ordgar the ealdorman.

A. 966. This year Thored, Gunner`s son, ravaged West-
moreland. And that same year Oslac obtained an ealdordom.

A. 967.

A. 968. In this year king Edgar ordered all Thanet-
land to be ravaged.

A. 969. 970.

A. 971. This year died archbishop Oskytel : he was first
consecrated bishop of Dorchester, and afterwards of York ;
by favour of king Edred, and of all his `witan,* he was
consecrated archbishop ; and he was a bishop twenty two
years; and he died on the mass-night of All-Hallows, ten
days before Martin-mass, at Thame. And abbat Thurkytel
liis kinsman, carried the bishop`s body to Bedford, because
he was then, at that time, abbat there.

A. 972. This year died Edmund the etheling, and his
body lies at Rumsey.

A. 972. This year Edgar the etheling was consecrated king at Bath,
on Pentecost`s mass-day, on the .5th before the Ides of May, the thirteenth
year since he had obtained the kingdom ; and he was then one less thati
thirty years of age. And soon after that, the king led all his ahip-forcea
to Chester ; and there came to meet him six kings, and they all plighteU
their trath to him, that they would be his fellow- workers by sea and bj



A. 973.
Here was Edgar,
ruler of Angles,
in full assembly,
li allowed king,
at the old city
Akemanscester ;
but it the islanders,
beorns, by another word,
name Bath.
There was much bliss
on that blessed day
to all occasioned,
which cliildren of men
name and call
Pentecost`s day.
There was a heap of priests ;
of monks a large band,
as I have heard,
of sage ones, gathered :
and then agone was
ten hundred years,
told in numbers,
from the birth- tide
of the glorious King,
Pastor of light,
but that there remaining
then still was,
of yearly-tale,
as writings say,
sev^en and twenty:
so nigh had to the Victor- lord
a thousand run out
wlien this befel.
And himself, Edmund`s
offspring, had
nine and twenty,
guardian `gainst evil works,
years in the world
waeu thi« was done,


and then in the tlnititth, was

hallowed ruler.
A. 974.
A. 975.

Here, ended

the joys of earth,

Edgar, of Angles king

chose him another li"fht
I beauteous and winsome

and left this frail,

this barren life.

Children of men name,

men on the earth,

every where, that month,

in this land,

those who erewhile were

in the art of numbers

rightly taught,

July month,

when the youth departed,

on the eighth day,

Edgar, from life,

bracelet giver to heroes.

And then his son succeeded

to the kingdom,

a child un-waxen,

of earls the prince.

to whom was Edward name.

And him, a glorious chief.

ten days before,

departed from Britain,

the good bishop,*

through nature`s course,

to whom was Cyneward nam at

Then was in Mercia,

as I have heard,

widely and every where*
I the glory of the Lord
I laid low on earth :
I many were expelled.




»age servants of i.^ofl ;

tliat was much grief

to him wlio in his breast bore

a burning love

of the Creator, in his mind.

Then was tl le Source of wonders

too oft contemned ;

the Victor-lord,

heaven`s Ruler. [through

Then men his law broke

and then was eke driven out,

beloved hero,

Oslac from this land,

o`er rolling waters,

o`er the ganet`s-bath ;

hoary-haired hero,

wise and word-skilled,

o`er the water`s throng,

o`er the whale`s domain.

( of home bereaved.
And then was seen,
high in the heavens,
a star in the firmament,
which lofty-souled
men, sage minded,
call widely,
cometa by name ;
men skilled in arts,
wise truth-bearers.
Throughout mankind was
the Lord`s vengeance
widely known,
famine o`er earth.
That again heaven`s Guardian,
bettered. Lord of angels,
gave again bliss
to each isle-dweller,
through earth`s fruits.

A. 975. The 8th before tlie Ides of i honoured far,


Here Edgar died,
ruler of Angles,
West- Saxons` joy,
and Mercians* protector.

Known was it widely
throughout many nations.
Thaet` offspring of Edmund,
o*er the ganet`s-bath.

Kings him widely
bowed to the king,
as was his due by kind.

No fleet was so daring,
nor army so strong,
that `mid the English nation
took from him aught,
the while that the noble king
ruled on his throne.

And this year Edward, Edgar`s son, succeeded to the kingdom ; and then
Boon, in the same year, during harvest, appeared ` cometa` the star ; and
then came in the fol`owinir year a very great famine, and very manifold
commotions among the English people.

whom Edgar, king, ordered crcwhile
the holy bishop

In his days,

for his youth,

God`s gainsay ere

God`s law broke ;

Eldfere, ealdorman,

and othw^ many ;

and rule monastic qiiashed,

and minstei-s dissolved,

and monks drove out,

and God`s servants put do^vn,

Ethelwold to stablish ;

and widows they plundered,

many times and oft :
^ and many unrighteonsnessee,

and evil imjust-deeds
j arose up afterwards .
j and ever after that
` it greatly grew in evil.

KaA at that time also, was Oslac thcgreut earl banished from EogiAnd.


A- 976. `I Ms year was the great famine among the Enq^-
lish nation.

A. 977. This year, after Easter, was the great council at
Kirtlington ; and there died bishop Sideman, by a sudden
death, on the 2d before the Kalends of jMay. He wa^ bisliop in
Devonsliire, and he desired tliat tlie resting-place of his body
should be at Crediton, at his episcopal seat. Tlien commanded
king Edward and archbishop Dunstan that he should be borne
to St. Mary`s minster, wliich is at Abingdon : and so too was
it done : and he is moreover honourably buried on the north
side, in St. Paul`s chapel.

A. 978. Li this year all the chief ` witan` of the English
nation fell at Calne from an upper cl] amber, except the holy
archbishop Dunstan, who alone supported himself upon a
beam ; and there some were grievously maimed, and some
did not escape wnth life. In this year was King Edward
martyred ; and Etiielred the etheling, his brother, succeeded
to the kingdom, and he was in the same year consecrated kv:g.
In that year died Alfwold ; he was bishop of Dorset, and his
body lies in the minster at Sherborne.

A. 979. In this year was Ethelred consecrated king at
Kingston, on the Sunday, fourteen days after Easter; and
there were at his consecration two archbishops, and ten suffra-
gan-bishops. That same year was seen a bloody cloud, often-
times, in the likeness of hre ; and it w^as mostly apparent
at midnight, and so in various beams was coloured : when it
began to dawn, then it glided away.

A. 979. This year was king Edward slain at even-tide, at Cni-fe-cate,
on the 15th before the Kalends of April, and then was he buried at \V?re-
ham, without any kind of kingly honours.

There has not been `mid Angles

a worse deed done

than this was,

since they first

Britain-land sought.

Men him murdered,

but God him glorified.

He was in life

an earthly king ;

he is now after death

a heavenly saint.

Hmi would not his earthly

k.m*men a venire,

but Ixim hath heavenly Father

greatly avenged.

The earthly murderers

would his memory

on eartli blot out,

but the lofty A venger

hath his memory

in the heavens

and on earth wide-spread.

They who would not ere while

to his living

body bow down,

they now humbly

on knees bend

to his deaA hones.


and their councils,
are like nought
`gainst God`s resolves.

Now we may understand
that men`s wisdom
And their devices,

This year Ethelred succeeded to the kingdom ; and he was very qujcKly
after that, with much joy of the English witan, consecrated king at Kingston.

A. 980. In this year abbat Ethelgar* was consecrated
bishop on the 6th before the Nones of May, to the episcopal seat
at Selsey. And in the same year was Southampton ravaged
by a ship-force, and the most part of the townsmen shiin, and
led captive. And that same year was Thanet-land ravag(^
by a sliip force, and tlie most part of the townsmen slain,
and led captive. And that same year was Legecester-shire
rChester] ravaged by a northern ship-force. In this year St.
Dunstan and Alfere the ealdorman fetched the holy king^s
body, vSt. Edward`s, from Wareham, and bore it with much
solemnity to Shaftsbury.

A. 981. In this year St. Petroc`s-stowe [Padstow] wa3
ravaged ; and that same year was much harm done every-
where by the sea-coast, as well among the men of Devon as
among the Welsh. And in the same year died Elfstan
bishop of Wiltshire, and his body lies in the minster at
Abingdon ; and Wulfgar then succeeded to the bishopric.
And in the same year died abbat Womaref at Ghent.

A. 981. This year came first the seven ships, and ravaged Southampton.

A. 982. In this year landed among the men of Dorset
three ships of pirates ; and they ravaged in Portland. That
same year London was burnt ; and in the same year died two
ealdormen, Ethelmer in Hampshire, and Edwin in Sussex ;
and Ethelmer`s body lies at Winchester, in the New-minster,
and Edwin`s in the minster at Abingdon. This same year
died two abbesses in Dorset, Herelufu at Shaftesbury, and
Wulfwina at Wareham. And that same year went Otho the
Koman emperor to Greek-land [Calabria], and there met he a
large force of Saracens, coming up from the sea, and they would
then go plundering the Christian people. And then the Empe-
ror fought against them, and there was great slaughter made
on either hand ; and the emperor had possession of the place oi
tarnage : and nevertheless he was there much harassed be-
fore he turned thence : and as he homeward went, then died

Of New-minstet. t Of St. Peter`s.


his brother`s son, who was named Otho, and he was Jjeo
dulf the etheling`s son, and Leodulf was the elder Otho`s
»on and king Edward`s daughter`s son.

A. 983. This year died Alfere the ealdorman, and
Alfi`ic succeeded to the same ealdorman-ship.* And Pope
Benedict [VH.] died.

A. 984. This year died the benevolent bishop of Winches-
ter, Ethelwold, father of monks, on the Kalends of August ;
and the consecration of the succeeding bishop, Elphege [II.],
wlio by another name was called Godwin, was on the 14th
before the Kalends of November ; and he took the episcoj)al
seat at Winchester, on the day of the two apostles Simon
and Jude.

A. 985. This year was Alfric the eoldorman banished the
land. And in the same year was Edwin consecrated abbat
of the minster at Abingdon.

A. 986. This year the king laid waste the bishopric of
Rochester. Tliis year first came the great murrain among
cattle in the English nation.

A. 987.

A. 988. This year was Watchet ravaged, and Goda, the
Devonshire thane, slain, and with him much slaughter made.
And this year departed the holy archbishop Dunstan, and
passed to the heavenly life : and bishop Ethelgarf succeeded,
after him, to the archbisliopric ;J and little while after that
he lived, but one year and three months.

A. 989.

A. 990. This year Siric was consecrated archbishop. §
and aftPl^v Hrds went to Rome for his pall. And abbat Ead-
win|| dic
A. 991. This year was Ipswich ravaged; and after that,
very shortly, was Britnoth the ealdorman slain at Maldon.
And in that year it was decreed that tribute, ^or the fii`st
time, should be given to the Danish-men, on account of the
great terror which they caused by the sea-coast ; that was at
first ten thousand pounds : this counsel was first given by
archbishop Siric.

A. 992. This year Oswald the holy archbishop^ left -"his,
and passed to the heavenly life: and Ethel win the eald^oi``

« Me-oiK- f OfSelsey. j Of Canterburv

i Oi Canterbury. 1| Of Abingdon. % Of York.


man* died in the same year. Then decreed the king and
all his witan that all the ships which were worth anytliing
should be gathered together at London. And the king then
committed the forces to the leading of Elfric the ealdorman,
and of Thorod the earl, and of bishop Elfstan,f and of
bishop Escwj;J and they were to try if they could any
where betrap the army about. Then sent the ealdorman
Elfric and directed the army to be warned ; and then during
the night of which they should have joined battle by day,
then fled he by night from the forces, to his great disgrace :
and the army then escaped, except one ship, whose crew
was there slain. And then the ships from East-Anglia, and
from London met the army, and there tliey made great
slaughter of them ; and took the ship, all armed and equip-
ped, in which the ealdorman was. And then after the de-
cease of archbishop Oswald, abbat Aldulf, of Peterborough,
succeeded to the bishopric of York, and of Worcester ; and
Kenulf to the abbacy of Peterborough.

A. 992. This year Oswald the blessed archbishop died, and Abbat
Eadulf succeeded to York and to Worcester. And this year the king and
all his witan decreed that all the ships which were worth anytliing sliould he
gathered together at London, in order that they might try if they could
any where betrap the army from without. But yElfric the ealdonnan, one
of those in whom the king had most confidence, directed the army to be
warned; and in the night, as they should on the morrow have joined battle,
the self-same iElfric fled from the forces; and then the axmy escaped.

A. 993. In this year was Bambrough entered by storm,
and much booty there taken. And after that the army came
to the mouth of the Humber, and there wrought much evil,
as well in Lindsey as in Northumbria. Then a very large
force was gathered together ; and as they should have joined
battle, then the leadei`s, first of all, began the flight; that
was Frene, and Godwin, and Frithgist. In tliis year the
king ordered Elfgar, son of Elfric the ealdorman, to be

A. 993. In this year came Olave with ninety-three ships to Staines, and
ravaged there about, and then went thence to Sandwich, and so thence to
IjKswicli, and that ail over-ran; and so to Maldon. And there liritnoth
the cAidornian came against tliem with his forces, and fought against them:
and they there slew the etildorman, and had possession of tlie place of

Of E. Anglia. + Of London. $ Of Dor.he8t«r.


ciiniHi^e. Ami ;irttT that jieiice wjm made with them; and hnn [Anlat )
the king afterwards received at the bishop`s hands, through the instruclinn
of Siric bishop of the Kentish-men, and of ^Iphtge [II.] of Winche»t<.>r.

A. 994. In this year came Olave and Sweyn to London,
on the nativity of St. Mary, with ninety-four ships; and
they then continued fit^liting stoutly against the city, and
would also have set fire to it. But they there sustained
more harm and evil than they ever supposed that any citizens
would be able to do unto them. But the holy mother
of God, on that day, shewed her mercy to the citizens
and delivered them from their foes. And they then went
tlience, and wrought the utmost evil that ever any army
could do, by burning, and plundering, and by man-slaying,
both by the sea-coast and among the East- Saxons, and in
the land of Kent, and in Sussex, and in Hampshire. And
at last they took to themselves horses, and rode as far as
they would, and continued doing unspeakable evil. Then
the king and his witan decreed that they should be sent to,
and promised tribute and food, on condition that they should
cease from their plundering : which terms they accepted.
And then all the army came to Southampton, and there
took up their winter-quarters: and there they were vic-
tualled from all the realm of the West- Saxons, and they
were paid sixteen thousand pounds of money. Then the
king sent bishop Elpliege [II ]* and Ethelwerd the ealdorman
after king Olave, and the while, hostages were delivered to
the ships; and they then led Olave with much worship to
the king at Andover. And king Ethelred received him at
the bishop`s hands, and royally gifted him. And then Olave
made a covenant with him, even as he also fulfilled, that he
never again would come hostilely to the English nation.

A. 995. In this year appeared *cometa,` the star, and
archbishop Sigic died: and Alfric bishop of Wiltshire!
was chosen J on Easter-day, at Amef^bury, by king Ethelred
and by all his witan. This Alfric was a very wise man, so
that there was no sager man in England. Then went Alfric
to his arcliiepiscopal seat ; and when he came thither he was
received by those men in orders who were most unacceptable
to him, that was, by clerks. And soon (he sent for) all the
wisest men he anywhere knew of, and also the old men who

Of Winchester. t Ai\erward« Saliabu.-j. I To Cantcrbuiy.


tverc able to say the soothest how each thing had been in
this land in the days of their elders; in addition to what
himself had learned from books and from wise men. Him
told the very old men, as well clergy as laity, that their
elders had told them how it had been established by law
so{m after St. Augustine came to this land. When Augus-
tine had obtained the bishopric in the city,* then was he
archbishop over all king Ethelbert`s kingdom, as it is re-
lated in Historia Anglorumf make (a bishop`s) see l)y

the king`s aid in ... . was begun by the old Romans ... and
to sprout forth. In that company the foremost were Mel-
li tus, Justus, Paulinus, Rufinianus. By these sent the blesst-d
pope the pall, and therewith a letter, and instruction how he
should consecrate bishops, and in which place in Britain he
should seat them. And to the king (also) he sent letters
and many worldly gifts of divers things. And the churches
which they had got ready he commanded to be consecrated in
the name of our Lord and Saviour Christ and St. Mary;
and for himself there fix a dwelling-place, and for all his
after-followers; and that he (should) place therein men of
the same order that he had sent thither, and of which he

himself was, and also that each monks who should

fill the archi episcopal seat at Canterbury, and that be ever
observed by God`s leave and blessing and by St. Peter`s, and
by all who came after him. When this embassy came again
to king Egelbert and to Augustine, they were very pleased
with such instruction. And the archbishop then conse-
crated the minster in Christ`s name and St. Mary`s, (on)
the day which is called the mass-day of the two martyrs,
Primus et Felicianus, and there within placed monks all as
St. Gregory commanded : and they God`s service continently
performed ; and from the same monks bishops were taken for

each as thou mayst read in Historia Anglorum. J Then

was archbishop Alfric very blithe, that he had so many wit-
nesses (who) stood best at that time with the king. Still
more, the same witan who were with the archbishop said:
Thus also we .... monks have continued at Christ-Church
during Augustine`s days, and during Laurentius`, Mellitus*,
Justus`, Honorius`, Deusdedit, Theodore`s, Berthwold`s, Tat»
wine`s, Nothelm`s, Cuthbert`s, Bregwine`s, Lambert`s, . . , .
Cantertur/. f Bedoi b. L c. 25. * Bede, b. i. c. 33^


i\ thelixrd`s, Wulfred`s, Theologild`s. But the (first) year whea
Ceoliioth came to the archbishopric, there was such a mor-
tidity that there remained no more than five monks within
Christ-Church. During all his time there was war and sor-
row in this Land, so that no man could think of anything else

but Now, God be thanked, it is in the king`s power

and thine, whether they may be longer there within, because
they (might) never better be brouglit thereout than now may
be done, if it is the king`s will and thine. The archbishop
then, without any staying, with all (these) men, went anon
to the king and showed liim all, so as we here before have
related. Then was the king very glad (at these) tidings
and said to the archbishop and to the others, `It seemeth
advisable to me that thou shouldst go first of all to Rome
after thy (pall, and that) thou show to the pope all this, and,
after that, act by his counsel:` And they all answered, that
that was the best counsel. When (the priests) heai`d this,
then resolved they that they should take two from amon^
themselves and send to the pope ; and they should ofier him
great gifts and silver, on condition that he should give them
the arch(-pall). But when they came to Rome, then would
not the pope do that, because they brought him no letter
either from the king or from the people, and commanded
them to go, lo ! where they would. (So soon as) the priests
had gone thence, came archbishop Alfric to Rome, and the
pope received Ifim with mucn worship, and commanded him
on the morrow to perform mass at St. Peter`s altar, and the
pope himself put on him his own pall, and greatly honoured
him. When this was done, the archbishop began telling the
pope all about the clerks, how it had happened, and how
they were within the minster at his archbishopric. And
the pope related to him again how the priests had come to
him, and offered great gifts, in order that he should give
them the paU. And the pope said, * Go now to England
again with God`s blessing, and St. Peter`s and mine ; and as
thou comest home, place in thy minster men of that order
which St. Gregorius commanded Augustine therein to place,
by God`s command, and St. Peter`s and mine.` Then the
archbishop with this returned to England. As soon as he
came home, he entered his archiepiscopal seat, and aftwent to the (king) and the king and all his people thanked

92 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, a. d. 996-999.

God for his return, and that he so had succeeded as was
pleasing to them all. He then went again to Canterbury,
and drove the clerks out of the minster, and there within
placed monks, all as the pope commanded him.

A. 996. In this year wiis Alfric consecrated archbishop
to Chript-Church.* This year was Wulstan ordained bishop
of London.

A. 997. In this year the army went about Devonshire
mto Severn-mouth, and there ravaged, as well among the
C<:)rnish-men as among the North- Welsh, and among the
men of Devon ; and then landed at Watchet, and there
wrought much evil by burning and by man-slaying. And
after that they again went about Penwithstert, on the south
side, and went then into the mouth of the Tamar, and then
went up until they came to Liddyford, and bui-ned and de-
stroyed every tiling which they met with ; and they burned
Ordulf`s minster at Tavistock, and brought unspeakable
booty with them to their ships. This year ai`chbishop Al-
fric went to Rome after his arch-pall.

A. 998. This year the army went again eastward into
Frome-mouth, and everywhere there they went up as far as
they would into Dorset. And forces were often gatliered
against them ; but, as soon as they should have joined battle,
then was there ever, through some cause, flight begun ; and
in the end they ever had the victory. And then at another
time they sat down in the Isle of Wight, and got their food
the while from Hampsliire and from Sussex.

A. 999. This year the army again came about into
Thames, and went then up along the Medway, and to
Rochester. And then the Kentish forces came there to meet
them, and they there stoutly joined battle r but alas ! that
they too quickly yielded and fled ; for they had not the sup-
port which they should have had. And the Danish-men
had possession of the place of carnage ; and then they took
horse and rode wheresoever they themselves would, and full
nigh all the West-Kentish men they ruined and plundered.
Then the king, with his witan, decreed that, with a ship
force and also with a land force, they should be attacked.
But when th«; shipswere ready, tlien the miserable crew delayed
Irom day to day, and distressed the poor people who la,j in


the ships : and ever su* it should have been forwarder, so was
it later from one time to another ; and ever tliey let their
enemies* forces increase, and ever the people retired from tlie
sea. and they ever went forth after them. And then in the
end, these expeditions both by sea and land effected nothiniz;,
except tlie people`s distress and waste of money, and the
emboldening of their foes.

A. 1000. In this year the king went into Cumberland,
and ravaged it well nigh all. And his ships went out about
Chester, and should have come to meet him, but they were
not able . then ravaged they Anglesey. And the hostile
fleet went tliis summer to Richard`s dominions.*

A. 1001. In this year was much hostility in the land of
the English through the ship-force, and well nigh every
where they ravaged and burned, so that they advanced
in one course until they came to the town of Alton ; and
then there came against them the men of Hampshire, and
fought against them. And there was Ethelwerd the king`s
high-steward slain, and Leofric at Whitchurcli, and Leot`win
the king`s liigh-steward, and Wulfhere the bishop`s thane, and
Godwin at Worthy, bishop Elfsy`s son,f and of all men,
one and eighty ; and there were of the Danish-men many
more slain, though they had possession of the place of car-
nage. And they went thence west until they came to
Devon ; and there Paley came to meet them, with the ships
which he could gather, because he had fled from king Ethel-
red, contrary to all the plighted troth that he had given him ;
and the king had also well gifted him with houses, and with
gold and with silver. And they burned Teignton, and also
many other good towns which we are unable to name ; and
thei`e, aftervk^ards, peace was made with them. And they
tlien went thence to Exmouth, so that they proceeded up-
wards in one course until they came to Pen : and there
Cole the king`s high-reve, and Edsy the king*s-reve, went
against them with the forces which they were able to gather
together ; and they there were put to flight, and there were
many slain : and the Danish-men had possession of the place
of carnage. And the morning after, they burned the villag<»
of Pen and at Clifton, and also many goodly towns which we
are unnble to name, and then went again east until thtf^
Kormandj. f gee A. 1032 below.

94 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, a. d. 1002, 1003.

came to the Isle of Wiirht ; and on the morning after, they
bu`-iied the town at Waltham, and many other small townis
and soon after a treaty was entered into with them, and they
made peace.

A. 1001. This year the army came to Exmouth, and then went up to
the town, and there continued figliting stoiitly ; but they were very strenu-
ously resisted. Then went they tlirough the land, and did all as was their
wont ; destroyed and burnt. Then was collected a vast force of the peo-
ple of Devonand of the people of Somerset, and they then came together
at Pen, And so soon as they joined battle, then the people gave
way : and there they made great slaughter, and then they rode over the
land, and their last incursion was ever worse than the one before : and then
thev brought much booty with them to their ships. And thence they went
into the Isle of Wight, and there they roved about, even as they themselves
would, and nothing withstood them : nor any fleet by sea durst meet them ;
nor land force either, went they ever so far up. Then was it in every
wise a heavy time, because they never ceased from their evil doings.

A. 1002. In this year the king decreed, and his witan,
that tribute should be paid to the fleet, and peace made with
them, on condition that they should cease from their evil-
doings. Then sent the king to the fleet Leofsy the
caldorman ; and he then settled a truce with them by the
king`s word, and his witan`s, and that they should receive
food and tribute. And that they then accepted : and then
were they paid twenty-four thousand pounds. Then during
this, Leofsy the ealdorman slew Eafy the king`s high-steward ;
and the king then banished him ilie land. And then m the
same Lent came the lady, Richard`s * daughter, Emma
Elfgive, hither to land : and in the same summer archbishop
Aldulf f died. And in that year the king ordered all the
Danish-men who were in England to be slain. This was
done on St. Brice`s mass-day ; because it was made known
to the king that they would treacherously bereave him of his
life, and afterwards all his witan ; and after that have his
kingdom without any gainsaying.

A. 1003. This year was Exeter entered by storm, through
tlie French churl Hugh, whom the J lady had appointed her
steward: and then the army entirely ruined the town, and
there took much booty. And in the same year the army
went up into Wiltshire. Then was gathered a very large
force from Wiltsliire and from Hampshire, and very

Duke of Normandy. f Of York J Lmma.


rr^solutely tliey came in presence of the army. Thee should
tke ealdonnan Elt`ric have led the forces, but he then had
recourse to his old devices : as soon as they were so near that
either amiy could look on the other, then feigned he himself
sick, and began by retching to spew, and said that he was
grievously ill : and thus deceived the people whom he should
have led ; as it is said : When tlie leader groweth feeble,
then is all the army greatly liindered. When S^veyn saw
that they were not unanimous, and that they all separated,
then led he his army into Milton ; and they spoiled the town,
and burned it ; and he went then to Salisbury, and thence
went to the sea again, where he knew that his sea-horses

A. 1004. Tliis year came Sweyn with his fleet to
Norwich, and entirely spoiled and burned the town. Then
decreed Ulfkytel, with the witan of East-Anglia, that it were
better that they should purchase peace of the army before
they did very much harm in the land ; because they had
come unawares, and he had not time that he might gather
his forces. Then during the truce which ought to have been
between them, then stole the army up from their ships, and
went their way to Thetford. When Ulfkytel understood
that, then sent he word that the ships should be hewed in
pieces, but they in whom he trusted failed to do it, and he
then gathered his forces secretly, as he best might. And
the army then came to Thetford, within three weeks of their
having before plundered Norwich, and were one day there
witliin, and plundered and burned the town. And then on tlie
morrow, as they would have gone to their ships, then came
Ulfkytel with his band, in order that they might there join
battle with them. And they there stoutly joined battle,
and much slaughter was there made on either hand. There
were the chief among the East-Anglian people slain ; but if
the full force there had been, they never again had gone to
their ships ; inasmuch as they themselves said, that they
never had met a worse hand-play among the English nation
than Ulfkytel had brought to them.

A. 1005. In this year was the great famine throughout
the English nation ; such, that no man ever before recollected
one so grim. And the fleet in this year went from this land
lo Donmark ; ar.d staid but a little space ere it came again.


A. 1006 Tliis year died archbishop Alfric, and after him
bishop Elphege [11.] succeeded to tiie arclibishopnc :* and bi*
»hop Brithwin succeeded to the bishopric of Wiltshire."!" And
in the same year was Vv`ulfgeat deprived of all his possessions,
and Wulfeah and Ufgeat were blinded, and Elfelm the
ealdorman was slain ; and bishop Kenulf J died. And then^
after mid-summer, then came the great fleet to Sandwich, and
did all as they had been before wont ; they ravaged, and
burned, and destroyed, wherever they went. Then the king
commanded all the people of Wessex and of Mercia to be
called out ; and then tliey lay out all the harvest in the field
against the army. But it availed notliing the more than it
oft before had done : but for all this the army went
wheresoever itself would, and the forces did every kind of
harm to the inhabitants ; so that neither profited them, nor
the home army nor the foreign army. When it became
winter, then went the forces home ; and the army then came,
over St. Martin`s-mass, to their quarters in the Isle of ^Vight,
and procured themselves there from all parts that which they
needed. And then, at mid-winter, they went to their ready
store, throughout Hampshire into Berkshire, to Reading:
and they did their old wont ; they lighted their war-beacons
as they went. Then went they to "V^`allingford, and that all
burned, and were then one day in Gholsey : and they went
then along Ashdown to Cuckamsley-hill, and there abode,
as a daring boast ; for it had been often said, if they should
reach Cuckamsley-liill, that they would never again get to
the sea : then they went homewards another way. Then
were forces assembled at Kennet, and they there joined battle
and they soon brought that band to flight, and afterwards
carried their booty to the sea. But there might the
Winchester-men see an army daring and fearless, as they
went by their gates towards the sea, and fetched themselves
food and treasures over fifty miles from the sea. Then had
the king gone over Thames into Slu-opshire, and there took
his abode during the mid-winter`s tide. Then became the
dread of the army so great, that no man could think or
discover how they could be driven out of the land, or tliis
land maintained against them ; for they had every shire ir

* Of Canterbi.rv. f Afterwards the dic^ceflc of Salisbuiy.

t Of Wincherter.


Wessex sadlj marked, by burning and by plundering. Then
the king began eai*nestly with ^jis witan to consider what
mi^ht seem most advisable to them all, so that this land
might be saved, before it was utterly destroyed. Then the
king and his witan decreed, for the behoof of the whole
nation, though it was hateful to them all, that they needs
must pay tribute to the army. Then the king sent "^o the
army, and directed it to be made known to them, that he
would that there should be a truce between them, and that
tribute should be paid, and food given them. And then all
that they accepted : and then were they victualled from
throughout the English nation.

A. 1006. This year Elphege [II.] was consecrated archbishop.*

A. 1007. Li this year was the tribute delivered to the
army, that was thirty-six thousand pounds. In this year
also was Edric appointed ealdorman over the kingdom of
Mercia. This year bishop Elphege went to Rome after his

A. 1008. This year the king commanded that ships should
be speedily built throughout the English nation : that is then,
from three hundred hides and from ten hides, one vessel ; and
from eight hides, a helmet and a coat of mail.

A. 1009. In this year were the ships ready about which
we before spake ; and there were so many of them as never
before, according as books say unto us, had been among the
English nation in any king`s days. And they were all
brought together to Sandwich, and there they were to lie
and defend this land against every foreign army. But still
we had not the good fortune nor the worthiness, that the
ship-force could be of any use to this land, any more than it
oft before had been. Then befell it at this same time, or a
little before, that Brihtric, Edric the ealdorman`s brother,
accused [of treason] to the king Wulfnoth the " child " of the
South- Saxons, father of Godwin the earl. He then went out,
and enticed ships unto him, until he had twenty ; and he then
ravaged every where by the south coast, and wrought every
kind of evil. Then it was told unto the ship-forces that
they might be easily taken, if they would go about it. Then
Brihtric took with him eighty ships, and thought that he
fthouid acquire griat fame if he could seize Wulfncth alive
Of Canterbury. „


or dead. But as they were on their way thither, then cAme
such a wind against them as no man before remembered, and
the ships it then utterly beat, and smashed to pieces, and
cast upon the land ; and soon came Wulfnoth, and burned
the ships. When this was thus known in the other ships
where the king was, how the others had fared, tlien was it as
if it had been all hopeless ; and the king went his way liome,
and the eaklormen and the nobility, and thus lightly left
the ships ; and then afterwards, the people who were in the
ships brought them to London : and they let the whole
nation`s toil thus lightly pass away ; and no better was that
victory on which the whole English nation had fixed their
hopes. When this ship-expedition had thus ended, then
came, soon after Lammas, the vast hostile army, which we
have called Thurkill`s army, to Sandwich ; and they soon
went their way to Canterbury, and the city would soon
have subdued, if the citizens had not first desired peace of
them : and all the people of East-Kent made peace with the
army, and gave them three thousand pounds. And then,
soon after that, the army went forth till they came to the Isle of
Wight ; and thence every where in Sussex, and in Hampshire,
and also in Berkshire, they ravaged and plundered as their
wont is.* Then the king commanded the whole nation to be
called out ; so that they should be opposed on every side :
but lo ! nevertheless, they marched as they pleased. Then,
upon a certain occasion, the king had got before them with
all his forces, as they would go to their ships ; and all the
people were ready to attack them. But it was then prevented
thj-ough Edric the ealdorman, as it ever is still* Then,
after St. Martin`s-mass, they went once more into Kent,
and took up their winter-quarters on the Thames, and ob
tained their food from Essex, and from the shires which
wore there nearest, on both sides of the Thames. And ot\
they fought against the city of London : but praise be to
God that it yet stands sound, and they there ever met
with ill fare. And then, after mid-winter, took they their
way upwards through Chiltern, and so to Oxford, and burned
the city 5 and betook themselves then, on both «»ides of the

These expressions in the present tense afford a strong proof that the
orifrinal records of these transactions are nearly coeval with the transiictioiM
ifeciiaelves. Later MSS. use the oast tense. — Inuiuh.


niAin*^8, towards their ships. Then were they warned thrrt
tliere were forces gathered at London against them : tlieu
went they over at Staines. And thus they went the whole
winter ; and during Lent they were in Kent, and repaired
flbeir ships.

A. 1010. This year, after Easter, came the fore-mentioned
army into East-Anglia, and landed at Ipswich, and went
forthwith where they understood Ulfkyiel was with his
forces. This was on the day, called the first of the ascension
of our Lord. The East Angles soon fled. Then stood Cam-
bridge-shire firmly against them. There was slain Athelstan
the king`s son-in-law, and Oswy and his son, and WuLfric,
Leofwin`s son, and Eadwy, Efy`s brother, and many other good
thanes, and numberless of the people : the flight first began
at Thurkytel Myrehead. And the Danes had possession of
the place of carnage : and there were they horsed ; and
afterwards had dominion over East-Anglia, and the land three
months ravaged and burned ; and they even went into the
wild fens, and they destroyed men and cattle, and burned
throughout the fens : and Thetford they burned, and Cam-
bridge. And after that they went southward again to the
Thames, and the men who were horsed rode towards the
ships ; and after that, very speedily, they went westward
into Oxfordshire, and thence into Buckinghamshire, and so
along the Ouse until they came to Bedford, and so onwards
to Temsford ; and ever burning as they went. Then went
they again to their ships with their booty. And when they
went to their ships, then ought the forces again to have gone
out against them, until they should land ; but then the forces
went home : and when they were eastwards, then were the
forces kept westwards ; and when they were southwards,
then were our forces northwards. Then were all the witan
summoned to the king, and they were then to counsel how
this land might be defended. But although something might
be then counselled, it did not stand even one month : at last
there was no chief who would assemble forces, but each
fled as he best might ; nor, at the last, would even one shire
assist another. Then before St. Andrew`s mass-day, came
the enemy to Northampton, and they soon burned the town
and took there-about as much as they themselves would ;
ftnd thence they went over Thanies into Wesaex, and so by

H 2

100 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, a.d. ion, m2.

Cannings-marsh, burning all the way. When they had
gone so far as they then would, then came they at mid-winter
to their ships.

A. ion. In this year sent the king and his witan to the
army, and desired peace, and promised them tribute and food,
on condition that they would cease from their plundering.
They had then over-run, 1st, East-Anglia, and 2d, Essex,
and 3d, Middlesex, and 4th, Oxfordshire, and 5th, Cambridge-
shire, and 6th, Hertfordshire, and 7th, Buckinghamshire,
and 8th, Bedfordshire, and 9th, half of Huntingdonshire,
and 10th, much of Northamptonshire ; and south ot
Thames, all Kent, and Sussex, and Hastings, and Surry, and
Berkshire, and Hampshire, and much of Wiltsliire. All
these misfortunes befel us through unwise counsel, that they
were not in time offered tribute, or fought against ; but when
they had done the most evil, then peace and truce were made
with them. And nevertheless, for all the truce and tribute,
they went everywhere in bands, and plundered our miserable
people, and robbed and slew them. And then in this year,
between the Nativity of St. Mary and St. Mi chad`s -mass,
they besieged Canterbury, and got into it through treachery,
because Elfmar betrayed it, whose life the archbishop Elphege
had before saved. And there they took the archbishop
Elphege, and Elfward the king`s steward, and the abbess Leo-
fruna,* and bishop Godwin.f And abbat Elfmar { they let
go away. And they took there witliin all the men in orders,
and men and women : it is not to be told to any man how
many there were. And they remained within the city
afterwards as long as they would. And when they had
thoroughly searched the city, then went they to their ships,
and led the archbishop with them.
Was then captive erewhile saw bliss,

he who erewhile was in that hapless city,

head of the English race whence to us came first

and Christendom. Cliristendom and bliss,

There might then be seen `fore God, and `fore the world,
misery, where men oft

And they kept the archbishop with them so long as mtil the
time that they martyred him.

A 1012. In this year came Edric the ealdorman, and all
Of S. ^lildied`a. + Godwin 111. of Rochester. * Of St. Augustine`i.


the chief witan, clergy and laity, of the English people to
London, before Easter ; Easter-day was tlien on the Ides
of April ; and they were there then so long as until all
the tribute was paid, after Easter ; that was eight and forty
thousand pounds. Then on the Saturday was the army
greatly excited against the bishop, because he would not pro-
mise them any money : but he forbade that any thing slioirtd
be given for him. They had also drunk deeply, for wine
had been brought there from the south. Then took they the
bishop, led him to their hustings on the eve of Sunday, the
octaves of Easter, which was on the 13th before the Kalends of
May ; and there they then shamefully slaughtered him :
they cast upon him bones and the horns of oxen, and then
one of them struck him with an axe-iron on the head, so that
with the blow he sank down ; and his holy blood fell on the
earth, and his holy soul he sent forth to God`s kingdom.
And on the morrow the body was carried to London, and
the bishops Ednoth* and Elfhun,"f and the townsmen, re-
ceived it with all reverence, and buried it in St. Paul`s
minster ; and there God now manifesteth the miraculous
powers of the holy martyr. When the tribute was paid, and
oaths of peace were sworn, then the army separated widely,
in like manner as before it had been gathered together. Then
became subject to the king five and forty ships of the army,
and covenanted with him that they would defend this country,
and that he should feed and clothe them.

A. 1013. In the year after that in which the archbishop
Elphege was martyred, the king appointed bishop Living to
be archbishop of Canterbury. And in this same year,
before the month of August, came king Sweyn with his
fleet to Sandwich, and went then, very soon, about East-
Anglia into the mouth of the Humber, and so upward along
Trent, until he came to Gainsborough. And then, soon,
Utred the earl and all the North-humbrians submitted to
him, and aU the people in Lindsey, and afterwards the people
in the Five Boroughs, J and soon after, all the army north of
WatUng-street ; and hostages were delivered to him from
every shire. Alter he had learned that all the people were

Of Dorchester. + Of London.

5 Namely, Leicester Lincoln, Nottingham, Stamford, and Deioy. S*j«
942, 1015.


obedient to liim, then bade he that his army should be
victualled and horsed ; and he then afterwards went south-
ward with all the forces, and committed the ships and the
hostages to his son Canute. And after he came over Watling-
street, they wrought the most evil that any army could do.
Then went he to Oxford, and the townsmen soon submitted,
and delivered hostages ; and thence to Winchester, and they
did the like. Then went he thence eastward to London, and
much of his people was drowned in the Thames, because
they kept not to any bridge. When he came to the city,
then would not the townsmen submit, but held out against
him with all their might, because king Ethelred was therein,
and Thurkill with him. Then went king Sweyn thence to
Wallingford, and so over the Thames westward to Bath, and
sat down there with his forces. A nd Ethelmar the ealdor-
man came thither, and the western thanes with him, and they
all submitted to Sweyn, and delivered hostages for them-
selves. And when he had thus succeeded, then went he
northward to his ships ; and then all the people held him for
full king. And after that the townsmen of London sub-
mitted, and delivered hostages, because they dreaded lest he
should utterly undo them. Then Sweyn ordered a full-tri-
bute and provisions for his army during the winter ; and
Thurkill ordered the like for the army which lay at Green-
wich : and for all that, they plundered as oft as they would.
Then was this people nothing benefited either from the south
or from the north. Then was king Ethelred some while
with the fleet which lay in the Thames ; and the lady* then
departed over sea to her brother Richard,f and Elfsy, abbat of
Peterborough, with her. And the king sent bishop Elfhun
with the ethelings, Edward and Alfred, over sea, that he
might have charge of them. Then departed the king from
the fleet at mid-winter into the Isle of Wight, and was there
during that tide ; and after that tide he went over the sea to
Richard, and was there with him until such time as Sweyn
was dead. And the while that the lady was with her brother
beyond sea, Elfsy, abbat of Peterborough, who was there with
lier, went to the minster which is called Boneval, where St.
Florentine`s body lav. There found he a poor place, a poor
abbat, and poor monks ; for they had been plundered. Then
Emma. f Duke of Normandy.


©ought he there of the abbat and of the monks St. FIf ren
tine`s body, all except the head, for five hundred pounds ;
and then when he came home again, then made he an offer-
ing of it to Chi`ist and St. Peter.

A. 1014. In this year king Sweyn ended his days, at
Candlemas, on the tliird before the Nones of February. And
that same year Alwy was consecrated bishop of London, at
York, on St. Juliana`s mass-day. And all the fleet then
chose Canute for king. Then counselled all the witan who
were in England, clergy and laity, that they should send
after king Ethelred ; and they declared that no lord were
dearer to them than their natural lord, if he would rule them
better than he had before done. Then sent the king his
son Edward hither with his messengers, and ordered them to
greet all his people ; and said that he would be to them a
loving lord, and amend all those things which they all ab-
horred, and each of those things should be forgiven which
had been done or said to him, on condition that they all, with
one consent, would be obedient to him, without deceit. And
they tlien established full friendship, by word and by pledge,
on either half, and declared every Danish king an outlaw
from England for ever. Then, during Lent, king Ethelred
came home to his own people ; and he was gladly received
by them all. Then, after Sweyn was dead, Canute^ sat with
his army at Gainsborough until Easter ; and it was agreed
between him and the people of Lindsey that they should find
him horses, and that afterwards they should all go out to-
gether, and plunder. Then came king Ethelred thither, to
Lindsey, with his full force, before they were ready : and
then they plundered, and burned, and slew all the people
whom they could reach. And Canute went away out with his
fleet, and thus the poor people were deceived through him,
and then he went southward until he came to Sandwich ;
and there he caused the hostages to be put on shore who had
been delivered to his father, and cut off th^eir hands, and
ears, and noses. And besides all these evils, the king
ordered the army which lay at Greenwich to be paid twenty-
one thousand pounds. And in this year, on the eve of St.
JVIichael`s mass, came the great sea-flood wide throughout
this land, and ran so far up as it never before had done, aj i
washed away many towns, and a couxitlei&s number of poupid

104 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. a.d. lois, lom

A. 1015. In this year was the great council at Oxford ;
and there Edric the ealdorman betrayed Sigeferth and
Morcar, the chief thanes in the Seven Boroughs. He allured
them into his chamber, and there within they were cruelly
slain. And the king then took all their possessions, and
ordered Sigeferth`s relict to be taken, and to be brought to
Malmesbury. Then, after a little space, Edmund the
etheling went there and took the woman, contrary to the
king`s will, and had her for his wife. Then, before the
Nativity of St. Mary, the etheling went thence, from the
west, north to the Five Boroughs, and soon took possession of
all Sigeferth`s property, and Morcar`s ; and the people all
submitted to him. Ajid then, during the same time, came
king Canute to Sandwich ; and soon after went about Kent
into Wessex, until he came to the mouth of the Frome : and
then he ravaged in Dorset, and in Wiltshire, and in Somer-
set. Then lay the king sick at Corsham. Then gathered
Edric the ealdorman forces, and the etheling Edmund in
the north. When they came together, then would the
ealdorman betray the etheling, but he was not able : and
tii-ry then parted without a battle on that account, and gave
way to their foes. And Edric the ealdorman then enticed
forty ships from the king, and then went over to Canute. And
the men of Wessex submitted, and delivered hostages, and
horsed the army ; and then was it there until mid-winter.

A. 1016. In this year came Canute with his army, and
Edric the ealdorman with him, over Thames into Mercia at
Cricklade. And then they went to Warwickshire, during
the midwinter`s tide, and ravaged, and burned, and slew all
that they could come at. Then began the etheling Edmund
to gather his forces. When the forces were assembled, then
would it not content them except it so were that the king
were there with them, and they might have the help of the
citizens of London : then gave they up the expedition,
and each man went liim away home. Then after that tide,
the forces were again called out, so that each man, who
was able to go, should come forth, under full penalties ;
and they sent to the king at London, and prayed him
that he would come to meet the forces vdth such help as
he could gather. When they all had come together, then
xi ft vailed them nothing more than it oft before had duuo.


Then was it made known to the king that they would betray
liim ; they who ought to have been of aid to him. Then
left he the forces and returned to London. Then rode the
etheling Edmund into North-humbria to Utred the earl,
and every man thought that they would assemble forces
against king Canute. Then marched they into Staffordshire,
and into Shropsliire, and to Chester ; and they plundered on
their part, and Canute on his part. He went out through
Buckinghamshire into Bedfordshire, and thence to Hunting-
donshire, and so into Northamptonshire along the fens to
Stamford, and then into Lincolnshire ; then thence to
Nottinghamshire, and so to North-humbria towards York.
When Utred heard tliis, then left he off his plundering, and
hastened northwards, and then submitted, from need, and all
the North-humbrians with him ; and he delivered hostages :
and, notwithstanding, they slew him, through the counsel of
Edric the ealdorman, and Thurkytel, son of Nafan, with
him. And then, after that, king Canute appointed Eric to be
his earl in North-humbria, in like manner as Utred had
been ; and afterwards went southward, by another way, all
to the west : and then before Easter, came all the army to
their ships. And the etheling Edmund went to London to
his father. And then, after Easter, went king Canute with all
his ships towards London. Then befell it that king Ertbelred
died, before the ships arrived. He ended his days on St.
George`s mass day, and he held his kingdom with great toil
and under great difficulties the while that his life lasted.
And then, after his end, all the peers who were in London,
and the citizens, chose Edmund to be king : and he
strenuously defended his kingdom the while that his time
lasted. Then came the ships to Greenwich at Rogation days.
And within a little space they went to London, and they dug
a great ditch on the south side, and dragged their ships to
the west side of the bridge ; and then afterwards they ditched
the city around, so that no one could go either in or out : and
they repeatedly fought against the city ; but the citizens
strenuously withstood them. Then had the king Edmund,
before that, gone out ; and then he over-ran Wessex, and all
the people submitted to him. And soon after that he fought
against the army at Pen, near GiUingham. And a second
battle he fought, after mid-summer, at Sherston ; and ther


much slaughter was made on either side, and the armies of

themselves separated. In that battle was Edric the
ealdorman, and JFAmer darling, helping the army against
king Edmund. And then gathered he his forces for the
third time, and went to London, all north of Thames, and so
out through Clayhanger ; and relieved the citizens, and
drove the army in flight to their ships. And then, two days
after, the king went over at Brentford, and there fought
against the army, and put them to flight : and there many
of the English people were drowned, from their own
carelessness ; they who went before the forces, and would
take booty. And after that the king went into Wessex, and
collected his forces. Then went the army, soon, to London,
and beset the city around, and strongly fought against
it, as well by water as by land. But the Almighty God
delivered it.

The enemy went then, after that, from London, with their
ships, into the Orwell, and there went up, and proceeded into
Mercia, and destroyed and burned whatsoever they over-ran,
as is their wont, and provided themselves with food : and
they conducted, as well their ships as their droves, into the
Medway. Then king Edmund assembled, for the fourth
time, all his forces, and went over the Thames at Brentford,
and went into Kent ; and the army fled before him, with
their horses, into Sheppey : and the king slew as many of
them as he could overtake. And Edric the ealdorman went
then to meet the king at Aylesford : than which no measure
could be more ill-advised.

The army then went again up into Essex, and passed into
Mercia, and destroyed whatever it over-ran.

When the king learned that the army was upward, then
assembled he, for the fifth time, all the English nation, and
followed after them, and overtook them in Essex, at the
down which is called Assingdon : and there they strenuously
joined battle. Then did Edric the ealdorman, as he had
oft before done, begin the flight first with the Maisevethians,
and so betrayed his royal lord and the whole people of thI`^nglish race. There Canute had the victory ; and all the
English nation fought against him. There was slain bishop
Ldaotli,* and abbat Wulsy, and Elfric the ealdorman,
Of Dorcneausr

A. p. 1017,1018. THE ANGLO-SAaON CHRONICLE. 107

and Godwin the ealdorman of Lindsey, and Ulfkytel of
E^st-Anglia, and Ethelward, son of Etliclwine* the ealdor-
man; and all the nobility of the English race was there

Then, after this battle, went king Canute up with his army
into Gloucestershire, wiiere he learned that king Edmund

Then advised Edric the ealdorman, and the counsellors who
were there, that the kings should be mutually reconciled.
And they delivered hostages mutually ; and the kings came
together at Olney near Deerhurst, and then confirmed their
friendship as well by pledge as by oath, and settled the tribute
for the army. And they then separated with this recon-
cilement : and Edmund obtained Wessex, and Canute Mercia
and the northern district. The army then went to their
ships witli the things they had taken. And the men of
London made a truce with the army, and bought themselves
peace: and the army brought their ships to London, and
took up their winter-quarters therein. Then, at St. An-
drews mass, died king Edmund ; and his body lies at
Glastonbury, with his grandfather Edgar. And in the
same year died Wulfgar, abbat of Abingdon ; and Ethelsy
succeeded to the abbacy.

A. 1017. Li this year king Canute obtained the whole
realm of the English race, and divided it into four parts:
Wessex to himself, and East-Anglia to Thurkill, and Mer-
cia to Edric, and North-humbria to Eric. And in this
year was Edric the ealdorman slain in London, very justly,
and Norman, son of Leofwin the ealdorman, and Ethel-
ward, son of Ethelmar the great, and Britric, son of
Elphege, in Devonshire. And king Canute banished Edwy
the etheling, and afterwards commanded him to be slain, and
Edwy king of the churls. And then, before the Kalends of
August, the king commanded the relict of king Ethelred,
Richard`s daughter, to be fetched for his wife ; that was Elf-
give in EngUsh, Emma in French.

A. 1017. This year Canute was chosen king.

A. 1018. In this year the tribute was delivered through-
out the whole English nation ; that was altogether, two an4

Cahed Etheby in wimj MSi^

108 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. a.d. ioi9-io2a

seventy thousand pounds, besides that which the townsmen
of London paid, which was ten and a half thousand pounds
And then some of the army went to Denmark, and forty
ehips remained with king Canute. And the Danes and the
Angles agreed, at Oxford, to live under Edgar`s law. And
this year abbat Ethelsy died at Abingdon, and Ethelwine
succeeded him.

A. 1019. This year king Canute went with forty ships to
Denmark, and there abode all the winter.

A. 1019. And this winter died archbishop Elfstan :* he was named
Living; and he was a very prondent man, both as to God and as to thj

A. 1020. In this year died archbishop Living: and king
Canute came again to England. And then, at Easter, there
was a great council at Cirencester: then was outlawed
Ethelward the ealdorman, and Edwy, king of the churls.
And in this year went the king to Assingdon, and arch-
bishop Wulstan [II.]jt ^^^ Thurkyl the earl, and many bishops
and also abbats, and many monks with them, and consecrated
the minster at Assingdon. And Ethelnoth the monk, who
was dean at Christ-Church, was in the same year, on the
Ides of November, consecrated bishop at Christ-Church,^ by
archbishop Wulfstan.

A. 1020. And caused to be built there a minster of stone and lime, for
the souls of the men who there were slain, and gave it to one of his priests,
whose name was Stigand.

A. 1021. In this year, at Martin-mass, king Canute out-
lawed Thurkyl the earl. And bishop Elfgar,§ the alms-
giver, died on Christmas-morn.

A. 1022. This year king Canute went out with his ships
to the Isle of Wight. Archbishop Ethelnoth went to Rome,
and was there received by Benedict, the honourable pope,
with much worship ; and he, wdth his own hands, put his pall
upon him, and very honourably consecrated him archbishop,
and blessed him, on the Nones of October. And the arch-
bishop soon after, on the self-same day, sang mass therewith :
and then thereafter was honourably entertained by the same
pope, and also himself took the pall from St. Peter`s altar j

Of Canterbury. f Of York.

I Cftnterbury. ^ Of Elmluaa.


*nd then afterwards he blithelj went home to his coantry.
And abbat LeoA\dne, who had been unjustly driven out
from Ely, was his companion; and he cleared himself of
everything that was said against him, as the pope instructed
him, in the presence of the archbishop, and of all the fellow-
ship which was with him.

A. 1022. And afterwards with the pall he there performed mass as the
pope instructed him: and he feasted after that with the pope; and after-
wards went home with a full blessing.

A. 1023. This year king Canute came again to England,
and Thurkyl and he were reconciled ; and he committed Den-
mark and his son to the keeping of Thurkyl; and the king
tfX)k Thurkyl`s son with him to England. This year died
archbishop Wulfstan :* and Elfric succeeded him ; and
archbishop Ethelnoth blessed him at Canterbury. Tliis
year king Canute, within London, in St. Paul`s minster, gave
full leave to archbishop Ethelnoth and Bishop Brithwine,f
and to all the servants of God who were with them, that
they might take up from the tomb the archbishop St. El-
phege. And they then did so, on the sixth before the Ides
of June. And the illustrious king, and the archbishop and
suffragan bishops, and earls, and very many clergy, and alsc
laity, carried, in a ship, his holy body over the Thames to
Southwark, and there delivered the holy martyr to the arch-
bishop and his companions; and they then, with a worshipful
band and sprightly joy, bore him to Rochester. Then, on the
third day, came Emma the lady, with her royal child Harda-
Canute : and then they aU, with much state and bliss, and songs
of praise, bore the holy archbishop into Canterbury; and then
worshipfully brought him into Christ`s Church, on the third
before the Ides of June. Again, after that, on the eighth
day, the seventeenth before the Kalends of July, arch-
bishop Ethelnoth, and bishop Elfsy,J and bishop Brith-
wine, and all those who were with them, deposited St.
Elphege`s holy body on the north side of Christ`s altar, to
the glory of God, and the honour of the holy archbishop,
and the eternal health of all who there daily seek to his
holy body with a devout heart and with all humility. God
-Almighty have in^`rcy on all Christian men, through St
Elphege`s holy merits.

Of lork. f `jf Sherborne. :: Of WincheBter

no THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, a.d. 1023-1031

A. 1023. .ind ^e caused St. Elphege^s remains to be borne ftoni Londos
to Canterbury.

A. 1023. And the siime year arclihishop Ethelnoth bore St. Elpheae%
the archbishop`s, remains to Canterbury, from London.

A. 1024.

A. 1025. This year king Canute went to Denmark, with
his ships, to the holm by the holy river. And there came
aigainst him Ulf and Eglaf, and a very great army, as well a
land-army as a fleet from Sweden. And there very many men
were destroyed on king Canute`s side, as well of Danish-men
as of English : and the Swedes had possession of the place
of carnage.

A. 1026. This year bishop Elfric* went to Rome, and
received his pall of Pope John, on the 2d before the Ides of

A. 1027

A. 1028. This year king Canute went from England, with
fifty ships of English thanes, to Norway, and drove king
Clave out of the land, and possessed himself of all that land.

A. 1029. This year king Canute came home again to Eng-
land. And so soon as he came to England, he gave to Christ-
Church at Canterbury the haven at Sandwich, and all the
dues that arise thereof, on either side of the haven : so that,
lo! when the flood is all at the highest, and all at the fullest,
if a ship be floating so nigh the land as it nighest may, and
there be a man standing in the ship, and he have a taper ax
in his ... .

A. 1030. This year was king Clave slain in Norway by
his own people ; and afterwards was sainted. And in this
year, before that, died Hacon, the doughty earl, at sea.

A. 1030. This year came king Olave again into Norway, and the people
gathered against him, and fought against him ; and he was there slain.

A. 1031. This year king Canute went to Rome. And so
soon as he came home then went he into Scotland : and the
king of the Scots, Malcohn [II.], submitted to him, and be-
came his man, but that he held only a little while, and two
other kings, Macbeth and Jelunar. And Robert, eail of Nor-
mandy, went to Jerusalem, and there died ; and William,
who was afterwards king in England, succeeded to Nor*
Uiandy, though he was a child.

01 York.


A. 1032. In this year appeared the wild fire, such 2kS do
man before remembered ; and moreover on all sides it did
harm, in many places. And in the same year died Elfsy,*
bishop at Winchester ; and Alwyn, the king`s priest, suc-
ceeded thereto.

A. 1033. This year died bishop Leofsy, and his botly
rests at Worcester: and Brilitegewas raised to his see.f In
this year died Herewith bishop of Somerset 4 and he is
buried at Glastonbury.

A. 1034. This year died bishop Etheric,§ and he lies at
Ramsey. This same year died Malcolm [H.], king in Scotland.

A. 1035. This year died king Canute ; and Harold, his son,
succeeded to the kingdom. He departed at Shaftesbury, on
the 2d before the Ides of November ; and they bore him thence
to Winchester, and there they buried him. And Elfgive,
Emma, the lady, then sat there within : and Harold, who
said that he was son of Canute and of the other Elfgive,
though it was not true ; he sent thither, and caused to be taken
from her all the best treasures, which she could not withhold,
that king Canute had possessed ; and nevertheless she still
8at there within, as long as she could.

A. 1036. This year Alfred the innocent etheling, son of
king Ethelred, came in hither, and would go to his mother,
who sat at Winchester ; but that neither Godwin the earl, nor
the other men who had much power, would allow him be-
cause the cry was then greatly in favour of Harold, though
that was unjust.

But Godwin him then let,
and liim in bonds set ; [ed
and his companions he dispers-
and some divers ways slew ;
some they for money sold,
some cruelly slaughtered,
some did they bind,
some did they blind,
some did they mutilate,
some did they scalp :
nor was a bloodier deed
done in this land

since the Danes came,
and here accepted peace.
Now is our trust in
the beloved God,
that they are in bliss,
blithely with Christ,
who were without guilt
so miserably slain.
The etheling still lived,
every ill they him vowed,
until it was decreed
that he should be led

Godwin and Dugdale make Elfsy or Elsinus. to be translated to Can-
terbury, 1U38. t Worcrster. $ Wells. § Of Dorchestti-

112 THE AKGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. a.d. loss-ioss.

to Ely -bury,

thus bound.

Soon as he came to land,

in the ship he was blinded ;

and him thus blind

they brought to the monks :

and he there abode

the while that he lived.

After that him they biiried,

as well was his due

full worthily,

as he worthy was,

at the west end,

the steeple well-nigh,

in the south aisle.

His soul is with Christ.

A. 1036. This year died king Canute at Shaftesbury, and he is buried at
Winchester in the Old-minster : and he was king over all England very
nigh twenty years. And soon after his decease there was a meeting of all
the witan at Oxford ; and Leofric the earl, and almost all the thanes north
of the Thames, and the ` lithsmen` at London, chose Harold for chief of
all England, him and his brother Hiirdecanute who was in Denmark. And
Godwin the earl and all the chief men of Wessex withstood it as long as
they could ; but they were unable to effect any thing in opposition to it.
And then it was decreed that Elfgive, Hardecanute`s mother, should dwell
at Winchester with the king`s, her son`s, household, and hold all Wessex in
hia power ; and Godwin the earl was their man. Some men said of
Harold that he was son of king Canute and of Elfgive daughter of Elfelm
the ealdorman, but it seemed quite incredible to many men ; and he waa
nevertheless full king over all England.

A. 1037. This year was Harold chosen king over all, and
Hardecanute forsaken, because he stayed too long in Den-
mark ; and then they drove out his mother Elfgive, tlie
queen, without any kind of mercy, against the stormy winter :
and she came then to Bruges beyond sea ; and Baldwin the
earl* there weU received her, and there kept her the while
she had need. And before, in this year, died Eafy the noble
dean at Evesham.

A. 1037. This year was driven out Elfgive, king Canute`s relict ; she waa
king Hardecanute`s mother ; and she then sought the protection of Bald-
win south of the sea, and he gave her a dwelling in Bruges, and protected
and kept her, the while that she there was.

A. 1038. This year died Ethelnoth the good archbishop,!
and bishop Ethehic in Sussex, J who desired of God that he
would not let him live, any while, after his beloved father
Ethelnoth ; and accordingly, within seven days after, he
departed, and bishop Elfric in East-Anglia, § and bishop
Briteagusin Worc^j^tershire on the 13th before the Kalemis of
January. And then bishop Eadsine succeeded to the arch-

* Of Flauden* t Of Canterbury. t Selsej. $ Elmhara.


bishopric, and Grinketd to the bishopric in Sussex, and
bishop Living to Worcestervshire and to Gloucestershire.

A. 1038. This year died Etlielnoth, the good archbishop, on the Ka-
lends of November, and a little alter, Ethelric bishop in Sussex, and then
before Christmas, Briteagus bishop in Worcestershire, and soon after, Elfric
bishop in East-Anglia.

A. 1039. This year was the great wind : and bishop
Brithmar died at Lichfield, And the Welsh slew Edwin
brother of Leofric the earl, and Thurkil, and Elfget, and
very many good men with them. And this year also came
Hai`decanute to Bruges, where his mother was.

A. 1039. This year king Harold died at Oxford, on the 16th before the
Kalends of April, and he was bxiried at Westminster. And he ruled Eng*
land four years and sixteen weeks ; and in his days sixteen ships were re-
tained in pay, at the rate of eight marks for each rower, in like manner as had
been before done in the days of king Canute. And in this same yei\x came
king Hardecanute to SandAvich, seven days before midsummer. And he waa
soon acknowledged as well by English as by Danes ; though his advisers
afterwards grievously requited it, when they decreed that seventy-two ships
should be retained in pay, at the rate of eight marks for each rower. And
in this same year the sester of wheat went up to fifty-five pence, and even

A. 1040. This year died king Harold. Then sent they
after Hardecanute to Bruges ; thinking that they did well.
And he then came hither with sixty ships before midsummer,
and then imposed a very heavy tribute, so that it could hardly
be levied ; that was eight marks for each rower, and all were
then averse to him who before had desired him ; and more-
over he did nothing royal during his whole reign. He
caused the dead Harold to be taken up, and had him cast into
a fen. This year archbishop Eadsine went to Rome.

A. 1 040. This year was the tribute paid ; that was twenty-one
thousand pounds and ninety-nine pounds. And after that they paid to
thirty-two ships, eleven thousand and forty-eight pounds. And, in
this same year, came Edward, son of king Ethelred, hither to land* from
Weal-land ; he was brother of king Hardecanute : they were both sons of
Elfgive ; Emma, who was daughter of earl Richard.

A. 104 1. This year Hardecanute caused all Worcestershire
to be ravaged, on account of his two household servants, who
demanded the heavy impost ; when the people slew them in th^
town within the minster. This year, soon after, came from
beyond sea Edward, his brother on the motlier`s side, king

114 THE ANGLO-SAXON CnPwONIOLE. a.d. io4i-io«.

Etheb-ed`s eon, who before for many years had been driveiA
from his country ; and yet was he sworn king : and he
then abode thus in his brother`s family while he lived.
And in this year also Hardecanute betrayed Eadulf the earl.*
while under his protection : and he became then a beher of
his "wed." And this year bishop Egelricf was ordained at
York, on the 3rd before the Ides of January.

A. 1041 . This year died king Hardecanute at Lambeth, on the 6th before
the Ides of June : and he was king over all Enjiland two years wanting ten
days ; and he is buried in the Old-minster at Winchester with king Canute
his father. And his mother, for his soul, gave to the New-minster the
head of St. Valentine the martyr. And before he was buried, all people
chose Edward for king at London : may he hold it the while that God
shall grant it to him ! And all that year was a very heavy time, in many
things and divers, as well in respect to ill seasons as to the fruits of the
earth. And so much cattle perished in the year as no man before remem-
bered, as well through various diseases as through tempests. And in this
same time died Elsinus abbat of Peterborough ; and then Amwius the monk
was chosen abbat, because he was a very good man, and of great simplicity.

A. 1042. This year died king Hardecanute as he stood at
his drink, and he suddenly fell to the earth with a terrible
convulsion : and then they who were there nigh took hold of
him ; and he after that spake not one word : and he died on
the 6th before the Ides of June. And all people then ac-
knowledged Edward for king, as was his true natural right.

A. 1043. This year was Edward consecrated king at Win-
chester, on the first day of Easter, with much pomp ; and
then was Easter on the third before the Nones of April,
Archbishop Eadsine consecrated liim, and before all the people
well instructed 1dm ; and for his own need, and all the peo-
ple`s, well admonished him. And Stigand the priest wa.«.
blessed bishop of the East- Angles. J And soon after, the
king caused all the lands which his mother possessed to be
seized into his hands, and took from her all that she pos-
sessed in gold, and in silver, and in tilings unspeakable, be-
cause she had before held it too closely with him. And soon
after, Stigand was deposed from his bishopric, and all that
he possessed was seized into the king`s hands, because he
was nearest to his mother`s counsel, and she went just as be
ftdrised her, as people thought.

* Of Northumbna. f Of Durham. | Elmhoou

A.i>. 1C43 1045. THE ANGLO-SAXCil CHi^ONICLE. llo

\. 1043. This year was Edward consecrated king at Winchester (ti th<»
firet day of Easter. And this ye?ir, fourteen days before Andrew`s-masi*,
the king was advised to ride from Gloucester, and Leofric the earl, and
liodwin the earl, and Sigwarth [Siward] the earl, with their followers, to
Winchester, unawares upon the lady [Emma] ; and they bereaved her of
ill the treasures which she possessed, they were not to be told, because
i>etore that she had been very hard with the king her son ; inasmuch uf
»ii)e had done less for him than he would, before he was king, and also
Bince : and they suffered her after that to remain therein.

This year king Edward took the daughter [Edgitha] of Godwin the
earl for his wife. And in this same year died bishop Brithwn, and he
held the bishopric thirty-eight years, that was the bishopric of Shrr-
borne, and Herman the king`s priest succeeded to the bishopric. And in
this year Wulfric was hallowed abbat of St. Augustine`s at Christmas, »>n
Stephen`s mass-day, by leave of the king, and, on account of his great intir-
mity, of abbat Elfstan.

A. 1044. This year archbishop Eadsine* gave up tlie
bishopric by reason of his infirmity, and he blessed thereto
Siward abbat of Abingdon, as bishop, by the king`s leave
and counsel, and Godwin`s the earl`s : it was known to few
men else before it was done, because the archbishop thought
that some other man would obtain or buy it whom he could
less trust in, and be pleased with, if more men should know
of it. And in this year was a very great famine over all
England, and corn was so dear as no man before remem-
bered ; so that the sester of wheat went up to sixty pence,
and even further. And in the same year the king went out
to Sandwich with thirty-five ships : and Athelstan the
churchwarden obtained the abbacy at Abingdon. And Sti-
gand re-obtained his bishopric. And in the same year king
Edward took Edgitha, daughter of Godwin the earl, to
ivife, ten days before Candlemas.

A. 1 044. This year died Living bishop in Devonshire, and Leofric suc-
ceeded thereto : he was the king`s priest. And in this same year died
Elfstan abbat of St. Augustine`s, on the third before the Nones of July
And in this same year was outlawed Osgod Clapa.

A. 1045. In this year died bishop Brithwinf on the 10th
before the Kalends of May ; and king Edward gave the
bishopric to Herman his priest. And in the same sum-
mer king Edward went out with his ships to Sandwich ;
and there so great a force was gathered, that no man had

Of Canterbury.

t Of liusiiHUwryf afterwards removed to Salisbury.


116 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. a.d. iws, iC46.

>^en tt greater fleet in this land. And in this same ym
died bisljop Living* on the loth before tlie Kalends of
April ; and the king gave the bishopric to Leofric his
priest. This year died Elfward bishop of London, on the
8th before the Kalends of August. He was first abbat of
Evesham, and greatly advanced the minster whilst he
was there. He went then to Ilamsey, and there gave up
his life. And Manni was chosen abbat, f and ordained on
the 4th before the Ides of August. And in this year was
driven out Gunnilde, the noble woman, king Canute`s niece ;
and she, after that, stayed at Bruges a long while, and after-
wards went to Denmark.

A. 1045. This year died Grimkytel bishop in Sussex, and Heca the
king`s priest succeeded thereto. And in this year died Alwyn, bishop of
Winche&iter, on the 4th before the Kalends of September ; and Stigand,
bishop ti> the north,t succeeded thereto. And in the same year Sweyn
the earl went out to Baldwin`s land§ to Bruges and abode there all the
winter ; and then in svmuner he went out.

A. 1016. In this year Sweyn the earl went into Wales,
and Grithn the Northern king|| went with him; and they
delivered hostages to him. As he was on his way home-
wards, then commanded he to be brought unto him the ab-
bess of Leominster : and he had her as long as he listed ;
and after that he let her go home. And in this same year
Osgod Clapa was outlawed before mid-winter. And in tliis
same year, after Candlemas, came the severe winter, with
frost and with snow, and with all kinds of tempestuous wea-
ther, so that there was no man then alive who could remem-
ber so severe a winter as this was, as well through mortality
of men as murrain of cattle ; even birds and fishes perished
through the great cold and famine.

A. 1046. This year died Bnth^vin, bishop in Wiltshire, and Herman
was appointed to his see. In that year king Edward gathered a large ship-
force at Sandwich, on account of the threatening of Magnus in Norway :
hut his and Sweyn`s contention in Denmark hindered his com`tng here.

A. 1046. This year died Athelstan, abbat of Abingdon, and Spar-
hawk, monk of St. Edmund`s-bury, succeeded him. And in this 8;ime
\ lar died bishop Siward, and archbishop Eadsine again obtained the whole
^isnopriclf And in this same year Lothen and Irling came with twenty-
fivt; ships to Sandwich, and there took unspeakable booty, in men^ and ia

Of Creditor. t Of Evesham. X Of Ehnham.

i Fiandere. ^ E Of Nortli Wales. ^ Of Canterbury.


gold, and in silver, so that no man knew how much it all waa. And they
then went about Thanet, ani would there do the like ; but the land`s folk
strenuously withstood them, and denied them as well landing as water ;
and thence utterly put them to flight. And they betook themselves then
into Essex, and there they ravaged, and took men, and j)roperty, and what-
soever they might find. And they betook themselves then east to Bald-
wine`s land, and there they sold what they had plundered ; and after that
went their way east, whence they before had come.

A. 1046. In this year was the great s}Tiod at St. Remi`s [Rheims].
Thereat was Leo the pope, and the archbishop of Burgundy [Lyons], and
the archbishop of Besanfon, and the archbishop of Treves, and the arch-
bishop of Rheims ; and many men besides, both clergy and laity. And
king Edward sent thither bishop Dudoc,* and Wulfric abhat of St. Augus-
tine`s, and abbat Elfwin,+ that they might make known to the king what
should be there resolved on for Christendom. And in this same year king
Edward went out to Sandwich with a great fleet. And Sweyn the earl,
Bon of Godwin the earl, came in to Bosham with seven ships ; and he
obtained the king`s protection, and he was promised that he should beheld
worthy of every thing which he before possessed. Then Harold the earl,
his brother, and Beom the earl contended that he should not be held wor-
thy of any of the things which the king had granted to them : but a pro-
tection of four days was appointed him to go to his ships. Then befell it
during this, that word came to the king that hostile ships lay westward,
and w^re ravaging. Then went Godwin the earl west about with two of
the king`s ships ; the one commanded Harold the earl, and the other Tos-
ty his brother ; and forty- two of the people`s ships. Then Harold the eari
was removed from the king`s ship which Harold the earl before had com-
manded. Then went they west to Pevensey, and lay there weather-bound.
Upon this, after two days, then came Sweyn the earl thither, and spoke
with his father, and with Beom the earl, and begged of lieom that he
would go with him to the king at Sandwich, and help him to the khig`s
friendship : and he granted it. Then went they as if they would go to the
king. Then whilst they were riding, then begged Sweyn of him that he
would go with him to his ships: saj-ing that his seamen would depart from
liim unless he should at the soonest come thither. Then went they both
where his ships lay. When they came thither, then begged Sweyn the
earl of him that he would go with him on ship-boaid. He strenuously
refused, so long as until his seamen seized him, and threw him into the
boat, and bound him, and rowed to the ship, and put him there aboard.
Then they hoisted up their sails and ran west to Exmouth, and had hin?
with them until they slew him : and they took the body and buried it in n
churdi. And then his friends and litsmen came from London, and took
him up, and bore him to Winchester to the Old-minster: and he is there
buried with king Canute his uncle. And Sweyn went then ea«t to Bald-
win`s land, and sat down there all the ^vinter at Bruges, with his full prf>-
tection. And m the same year died Eadnoth [II.] bishop t of the north
»nd Ulf was made bishop.

A. 1047. In this year died bishop Grinketel ; he was
Of Welia, t Of R^imscv. ; Of LJorcneeter.

118 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, a.d. io47. i043.

bishop* in Sussex, and he lies in Christ-Church, at Canter
bury ; and king Edward gave the bishopric to Heca his
priest. And in this same year died bishop Alwynj on the
4th before the Kalends of September ; and liing Edward
gave the bishopric to bishop Stigand. And Athelstan
abbat of Abingdon died in the same year, on the 4th before
the Kalends of April : then was Easter-day on the 3rd before
the Nones of April. And there was over all England a very
great mortality in the same year.

A. 1047. This year died Living the eloquent bishop, on the 10th before
the Kalends of April, and he had three bishoprics; one in Devonshire,
and in Cornwall, and in Worcester. Then LeofricJ succeeded to Devon-
shire and to Cornwall, and bishop Aldred to Worcester. And in this year
Osgod, the master of the horse, was outlawed : and Magnus$ won Denmark.

A. 1047. In this year there was a great council in London at Mid-lent,
and nine ships of lightermen were discharged, and five remained behind.
In this same year came Sweyn the earl into England. And in this same
year was the great synod at Rome, and king Edward sent thither bishop
iieroman and bishop Aldred ; and they came thither on Easter eve.
And afterwards the pope held a synod at Vercelli, and bishop Ulf came
thereto ; and well nigh would they have broken his staff, if he had not
given very great gifts ; because he knew not how to do his duty so well as
he should. And in this year died archbishop Eadsine, on the 4th before
the Kalends of November.

A. 1048. In this year was a great earthquake wide through-
out England. In the same year Sandwich and the Isle of
Wight were ravaged, and the chief men that were there slain.
And after that king Edward and the earls went out with
heir ships. And in the same year bishop Siward resigned
the bishopric on account of his infirmity, oid went to Abing-
ion, and archbishop Eadsine again received the bishopric :J
ind he [Siward] died within eight weeks after, on the 10th
before the Kalends of November.

A. 1048. This year was the severe winter and this year died Alwyn,
bishop of Winchester, and bishop Stigand was raised to his see. And be-
tore that, in the same year, died Grinketel, bishop in Sussex, and Heca
the priest succeeded to the bishopric. And Swevn also sent hither, beg-
ging assistance against Magnus, king of Norway ; tnat fifty ships should be
»ent to his aid. But it seemed unadvisable to all people : and it was then
iladered by reason that Magnus had a great ship force. And he then
drove out Sweyn, and with much man-slaying won the land : and tha

Of SelseT. + Of Winchester.

^ LeotiiC removed the »ee to Fxr-ter.

^ King of Norway. ( Of Cai\terhury.



Danes pa`d him much money and irknowledged him as king. And that
ime year Magnus died.

A. 1048. In this year king Edward app/iinted Robert, of Londoa,
archbiahop of Canterbury, during Lent. And in the same Lent he went to
Rome after his pall : and the king gave the bishopric of London to Spar-
hafoc abbat of Abingdon ; and the king gave the abbacy of Abingdon to
bishop Rodulf, his kinsman. Then came the archbishop from Rome one
day before St. Peter `s-mass-eve, and entered on his archiepiscopal see at
Christ`s Church on St. Peter`s mtiss-day ; and soon after went to the kinj;.
Then came abbat Sparhafoc to him with the king`s writ and seal, in order
that he should consecrate him bishop of London. Then the archbisiiorv
refused, and said that the pope had forbidden it him. Then went the abl`at
to the archbishop again for that purpose, and there desired episcopal ordi-
nation ; and the archbishop constantly refused him, and said that the pope
had forbidden it him. Then went the abbat to London, and occupied the
bishopric which the king before had granted him, with his full leave, all the
summer and the harvest. And then came Eustace* from beyond sea soon
after the bishop, and went to the king, and spoke with him that which he then
would, and went then homeward. When he came to Canterbury, east, then
took he refreshment there, and his men, and went to Dover. When be was
some mile or more on this side of Dover, then he put on his breast- plate,
and so did all his companions, and went to Dover. When they came
thither, then would they lodge themselves where they chose. Then came
one of his men, and would abide in the house of a householder against his
will, and wounded the householder ; and the householder slew the other.
Then Eustace got upon his horse, and his companions upon theirs ; and
the^ went to the householder, and slew him within his own dwelling ; and
they went up towards the town, and slew, as well within as without,
more than twenty men. And the townsmen slew nineteen men on
the other side, and wounded they knew not how many. And Eustace
escaped with a few men, and went again to the king, and made known
to him, in part, how they had fared. And the king became very wroth
with the townsmen. And the king sent off Godwin the earl, and bade him
go into Kent in a hostile manner to Dover : for Eustace had made it
appear to the king, that it had been more the fault of the townsmen than
his : but it was not so. And the earl would not consent to the inroad, be-
cause he was loath to injure his own people. Then the king sent after all
his council, and bade them come to Gloucester, nigh the aftermass of St,
Mary. Then had the Welshmen erected a castle in Herefordshire among
the people of Sweyn the earl, and wrought every kind of harm and dis-
grace to the kind`s men there about which they could. Then came God-
win the earl, and Sweyn the earl, and Harold the ean, together at Bever-
stone, and many men with them, in order that they might go to their royal
lord, and to all the peers who were assembled with him, in order that
they miglit have the advice of the king and his aid, and of all this council,
how they might avenge the king`s disgrace, and the whole nation`s. Then
were the Welshmen with the king beforehand, and accused the earlsy
Bo that they might not come within his eyes` sight ; because they said that
they were coming thither in order to betray the king. Thither bad

* Eao Dt fioulogue.


Si ward the earl and Leofricthe earl,+ and much people with them, from
the north, to the king ; and it was made known to tlui earl Grjdwin and his
sons, that the king and the men who were with him, were taking counsel
concerning them : and they arrayed themselves on the other hand reso-
lutely, thoTigh it were loathful to them that they should stand againt* their
royal lord. Then the peers on either side decreed that every kind of evil
ehould ceafe : and the king gave the peace of God and his full fciendship
to either side. Then the king and his peers decreed that a council of all
the nobles should be held for the second time in London at the harvest
equinox ; and the king directed the army to be called out, as well south
of the Thames as north, all that was in any way most eminent. Then de-
clared they Sweyn the earl an outlaw, and summoned Godwin the earl and
Harold the earl, to the council, as quickly as they could effect it. When
they had come thither, then were they summoned into the coimcil. Theit
required he safe conduct and hostages, so that he might come, unbetrayed,
into the council and out of the council. Then the king demanded all the
thanes whom the earls before had ; and they granted them all into his
hands. Then the king sent again to them, and commanded them that they
should come with twelve men to the king`s council. Then the earl again
required safe conduct and hostages, that he might defend himself against
each of those things which were laid to him. Then were the hostages re-
fused him ; and he was allowed a safe conduct for five nights to go out of
the land. And then Godwin the earl and Sweyn the earl went to
Bosham, and shoved out their ships, and betook themselves beyond sea,
and sought Baldwin`s protection, and abode there all the winter. And
Harold the earl went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter within
the king`s protection. And soon after this happened, then put away the
king the lady who had been consecrated his queen,:!: and caused to be taken
from her all which she possessed, in land, and in gold, and in silver, and in
all things, and delivered her to his sister at Wherwell. And abbat Sj)rir-
hafoc was then driven out of the bishopric of London, and William the king`s
priest was ordained thereto. And then Odda was appointed earl over
Devonshire, and over Somerset, and over Dorset, and over the Welsh.
And Algar, the son of Leofric the earl, was appointed to the earldom
which Harold before held.

A. 1049. In this year the emperor gathered a countless
force against Baldwin § of Bruges : by reason that he had
`estroyed the palace at Nimeguen, and also, that he had
lone many other injuries to him : the force was not to be
told which he had gathered. There was Leo [IX.] the pope
of Rome, and many great men of many nations. He sent
also to king Edward, and begged the aid of his ships, in
order that he should not suffer him to ©scape from him by
water. And he went then to Sandwich, 5nd there continued
lying with a great fleet, until the emperor obtained of Bald-

Of Northvjiibna. t Of .Mercia.

t IMithA. i £arl of Flandeza.


win all that he would. Tliither came back again Swejii
the earl to king Edward, and requested land of hiin, from
which he might maintain himself. But Harold his brother
contended, and Beorn the earl, that they should not give
up to him any thing which the king had given to them.
He came hither with false pretences ; saying that he would
be his man, and begged of Beorn the earl that he would aid
him : but the king refused him every thing. Then went
Sweyn to his ships at Bosham ; and Godwin the earl went
from Sandwich vsdth forty-two ships to Pevensey, and Beorn
the earl went forth with him ; and then the king gave leave
to all the Mercians to go home : and they did so. Then wiia
it made known to the king, that Osgod lay at Ulps with
thirty-nine ships. Then the king sent after the ships which
lay at the Nore, that he might send after him. But
Osgod fetched his wife from Bruges, and went back again
with six ships ; and the others landed in Essex, at Eadulf-
ness, and there did harm, and went again to their ships.
Then lay Godwin the earl and Beorn the earl at Pevensey
with their ships. Then came Sweyn the earl with fraud,
and begged of Beorn the earl that he would be his companion
to the king at Sandwich ; saying that he would swear oaths
to him, and be faithful to him. Then Beorn concluded that,
on account of their kindred, he would not deceive him. Then
took he three companions with him, and they then rode to
Bosham, as if they would go to Sandwich, where Sweyn`s
Bhips lay. And they soon bound him, and led him on shi])-
board ; and then went to Dartmouth, and there caused him to
be slain and deeply buried. But him his kinsman Harold
thence fetched and bore to Winchester, and there buried with
king Canute his uncle. And then the king and all the army
declared Sweyn an outlaw. Eight ships he had before he
murdered Beorn ; after that, aU forsook him except two :
and then he went to Bruges, and there abode with Baldwin.
And in this year died Eadnoth, the good bishop, in Oxford-
shire,* and Oswy abbat of Thorney, and Wulfnoth abbat of
Westminster : and king Edward gave the bishopric to Ulf
his priest, s.nd unworthily bestowed it. And in this same
year king Edward discharged nine ships from pay ; and
they went away, ships and all ; and five ohips remained be-

122 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICL"S. a. d. 1049, 105.).

hind, and the king promised them twelve months` paj. And
in the same year went bishop Heroman* and bishop Aldredf
to Rome, to the pope, on the king`s errand.

A. 1049. This year Sweyn came again to Denmark, and Harold, uncle of
Magnus, went to Norway after Magnus was dead ; and the Normans
acknowledged him : and he sent hither to land concerning peace. And
Sweyn also sent from Denmark, and begged of king Edward the aid of
his ships. They were to be at least fifty ships : but all people opposed it.
And this year also there was an earthquake, on the Kalends of May, in
many places in Worcester, and in Wick, and in Derby, and elsewhere ; and
also there was a great nioi-tality among men, and murrain among cattle :
and moreover, the wild-fire did much evil in Derbyshire and elsewhere.

A. 1050. In this year came the bishops home from Rome :
and Sweyn the earl was inlawed. And in this same year
died archbishop Eadsine, on the fourth before the Kalends of
November ; and also, in this same year, Alfric archbishop of
York, on the eleventh before the Kalends of February ; and
liis body lies at Peterborough. Then king Edward held
a council in London at Mid-lent, and appointed Robert
archbishop of Canterbury, and abbat Sparhafoc to London ;
and gave to bishop Rodulf, his kinsman, the abbacy at
Abingdon. And the same year he discharged all the
lightermen from pay.

A. 1050. Thither also came Sweyn the earl, who before had gone from
this land to Denmark, and who there had ruined himself with the Danes.
He came thither with false pretences ; saying that he would again he
obedient to the king. And Beom the earl promised him that he would be
of assistance to him. Then, after the reconciliation of the emperor and of
Baldwin, many of the ships went home, and the king remained behind at
Sandwich with a few ships ; and Godwm the earl also went with forty-two
ships from Sandwich to Pevensey, and Beom the earl went with him. Then
was it made known to the king that Osgod lay at Ulpswith thirty-nine
ships ; and the king then sent after the ships which before had gone home,
that h<» m`ght send after him. And Osgod fetched his wife from Bruges,
and they went hack again with six ships. And the others landed in
Sussex t at Eadulf-ness, and there did harm, and went again to their ships :
and then a strong wind came against them, so that they were all destroyeexcept four, whose crews were slain beyond sea. While Godwin the ear
and Beom the earl lay at Pevensey, then came Sweyn the earl, and begged
Beom the earl, with fraud, who was his uncle`s son, tliat he would be his
companion to the king at Sandwich, and better his affairs with him. He
went then, on account of the relationship, with three companions, with
him ; and he led him then towards Bosham, where his ships lay : and then
they bi)und him, and led him on ship-board. Then went he thence witk

Of Ramshury, Heroman removed the see t<> Salisbury,
t Of Worcester. J ijwey.


him to Dartmouth, and there ordered him to be slain, and deepiy bur{eAftejwards he was found, and borne to \\`inchester, and buried with king
Canufe bis nroV. A little before that, the men of Hastings and thereabrmt,
fought two of his ships with their ships ; and slew all the men, and brought
the sliips to Sandwich to the king. Eight ships he had before he betrayed
Beom ; after that all forsook him except two. In tlie same year arrived
in the Welsh Axa, from Ireland, thirty-six ships, and thereabout did harm^
with the help of Griffin the Welsh king. The people were gathered
together against them ; bishop Aldred * was also there with them ; but
iney had too little power. And they came unawares upon them at very
early morn ; and there they slew many good men, and the others escaped
with the bishop : this was done on the fourth before the Kalends of August.
This year died, in Oxfordshire, Oswy abbat of `i`horney, and Wulfnoth
abbat of Westminster ; and Ulf the priest was appointed as pastor to the
bishopric which Eadnoth had held ; but he was after that driven away j
because he did nothing bishop-like therein : so that it shameth us now to
tell more about it. And bishop Siward died: he lieth at Abingdon. And this
year was consecrated the great minster at Rheims : there was pope Leo [IX.]
and the emperor ;t and there they held a great synod concerning God`s
service. St. Leo the pope presided at the synod : it is difficult to have a
knowledge of the bishops who came there, and how many abbats : and
hence, from this land were sent two — from St. Augustine`s and from

A. 1051. In this year came archbishop Robert hither
over sea with his pall. And in this same year were banished
Godwin, the earl, and all his sons from England ; and he
went to Bruges and his wife, and liis tliree sons, Sweyn,
and Tosty, and Grith : and Harold and Leofwine went to
Ireland, and there dwelt during the winter. And in this
same year died the old lady, king Edward`s mother, and
Hardecanute`s, who was called Emma, on the second before
the Ides of March ; and her body lies in the Old-minster. J
with king Canute.

A. 1051. In this year died Kadsine archbishop of Canterbury ; and the
king gave to Robert the Frenchman, who before had been bishop of Lon-
don, the archbishopric. And Sparhafoc abbat of Abingdon succeeded to
the bishopric of London ; and it was afterwards taken from him before he
was consecrated. And bishop Heroraan and bishop Aldred went to Rome.

A. 1052. This year came Harold, the earl, from Ireland,
with Ids ships to the mouth of the Severn, nigh the bound-
aries of Somerset and Devonshire, and there greatly ravaged ;
and the people of the land drew together against him, aa
well from Somerset as from Devonshire ; and he put them to
flight, and there slew more than thirty good tlianes, besides
Of Worcester. f Hen. III. % Wincheste .


other people : and soon after that he went about Penwith^
Btert. And then king Edward caused forty vessels to b«
fitted out. They lay at Sandwich many weeks ; they were
to lie in wait for Godwin, the earl, who had been at Bruges
during the winter ; and, notwithstanding, he came hither to
land first, so that they knew it not. And during the time
that he was here in the land, he enticed to him all the men
of Kent, and all the boatmen from Hastings and every-
where there by the sea-coast, and all the East-end, and Sus«
Bex, and Surrey, and much else in addition thereto. Then all
declared that they with him would die and live. When the
fleet which lay at Sandwich, learned this concerning God-
win`s voyage, then set they out after him. And he escaped
them, and concealed himself wherever he then could ; and
the fleet went again to Sandwich, and so homeward to Lon-
don. Then when Godwin learned that the fleet which lay
at Sandwich was gone home, then went he once more to the
Isle of Wight, and lay thereabout by the sea-coast so long as
until they came together, he and liis son earl Harold. And
they did not much harm after they came together, except
that they seized provisions : but they enticed to them all the
Umd-folk by the sea-coast and also up the country ; and they
went towards Sandwich, and collected ever forth with them
all the boatmen which they met with, and then came to
Sandwich, with an overflowing army. When king Edward
learned that, then sent he up after more help ; but they came
very late. And Godwin advanced ever towards London
with his fleet until he came to Southwark, and there abode
6ome time until the flood-tide came up. During that time
he also treated with the townsmen, that they should do
almost all that he would. When he had mustered all
his host, then came the flood-tide ; and they then soon drew
their anchors, and held their way through the bridge by the
south shore, and the land-force came from above, and arrayed
themselves along the strand : and they then inclined with
the ships towards the north shore, as if they would hem the
king`s ships about. The king also had a great land-force on
his side, in addition to his shipmen ; but it was loathful to
almost all of them that they should fight against men cf
their own race ; for there was little else there which was ot
much account except Englishmen, on either aifle ; and iDDrc-


over they wero unmlling that this land should be still mora
exposed to OMilandish men, by reason that they theraselvei
destroyed each other. Then decreed they that wise men
sliould be sent between them ; and they settled a truce on
either side. And Godwin landed, and Harold his son, and
from their fleet as many as to them seemed fitting. Then
there was a j>eneral council : and they gave his earldom
clean to Godwin, as full and as free as he before possessed it,
and to his sons also all that they before possessed, and to his
wife and his daughter as full and as free as they before pos-
sessed it. And tliey then established between them full
friendship, and to all the people they promised good law.
And then they outlawed all the Frenchmen who before had
instituted unjust law, and judged unjust judgments, and
counselled ill counsel in this land ; except so many as they
agreed upon, whom the king liked to have with him, who
were true to him and to all liis people. And bishop Robert,*
and bishop William, f and bishop Ulf,J with difficulty
escaped, with the Frenchmen who were with them, and thus
got over sea. And Godwin, the earl, and Harold, and the
queen, § sat down in their possessions. Sweyn had gone
before this to Jerusalem from Bruges ; and he died on his
way home at Constantinople on Michael`s-mass. It was on
the INIonday after St. Mary`s-mass that Godwin with his
ships came to Southwark ; and the morning after, on the
Tuesday, they were reconciled, as it here before stands.
Godwin then grew sick soon after he landed ; and he after-
wards departi.^.d : but he did all too little penance for the
property of God which he held belonging to many holy
places. And the same year came the strong wind, on Tho-
mas`s-mass-night, and did much harm in many parts. More-
over Rees, the Welsh king`s |j brother, was slain.

A. 1052. This year died Alfric, archbishop of York, a very pious man,
and wise. And in the same year king Edward abolished the tribute,
which king Ethelred had before imposed : that was in the nine-and-
thirtieth year after he had begun it. That tax distressed all the English
nation during so long a time, as it here above is written ; that was ever be-
fore other taxes which were variously paid, and wherewith the people were
manifestly distressed. In the same year Eustace ^ landed at Dover : he

Of CanStrbury. f Of London. t Oi Dorchester.

f Editha, U Of South Wales. ^ Earl of Boulogne.


had king Edward`s aster to wife. Then went his men mconfiideiately
ifter quarters, and a certain man of the town they slew ; and another man
of the town their companion ; so that there lay seren of his companions.
And much harm was there done on either side, by horse and also by
weapons, until the people gathered together : and then they fled away
until they came to the king at Gloucester ; and he gave them protection.
When Godwin, the earl, understood that such things should have hap-
pened in his earldom, then began he to gather together people over all his
earldom,* and Sweyn, tlie earl, his son, over his, and Harold, his other son,
over his earldom ; and they all drew together in Gloucestershire, at Lang-
tree, a great force and countless, all ready for battle ag;iinst the king, un-
less Eustace were given up, and his men placed in their hands, and also
the Frenchmen who were in the castle. This was done seven days before
the latter mass of St. Mary. Then was king Edward sitting at Gloucester.
Then sent he after Leofric, the earl,t and north after Siward the earl,J and
be^,`ged their forces. And then they came to him ; first with a moderate aid,
but after they knew how it was there, in the south, then sent they north over
all their earldoms, and caused to be ordered out a large force for the help
of their lord ; and Ralph, also, over his earldom : and then came they all
to Gloucester to help the king, though it might be late. Then were they
all BO united in opinion with the king that they would have sought out
Godwin`s forces if the kijig had so willed. Then thought some of them
that it would be a great folly that they should join battle ; because there
was nearly all that was most noble in England in the two armies, and they
thought that they should expose the land to our foes, and cause great de-
struction among ourselves. Then counselled they that hostages should be
given mutually ; and they appointed a term at London, and thither the
people were ordered out over all this north end, in Siward`s earldom, and
in Leofric`s, and also elsewhere ; and Godwin, the earl, and his sons were
to come there with their defence. Then came they to Southwark, and a
great multitude with them, from Wessex ; but his band continually dimin-
ished the longer he stayed. And they exacted pledges for the king from
all the thanes who were under Harold, the earl, his son ; and then they
outlawed Sweyn, the earl, his other son. Then did it not suit him to come
with a defence to meet the king, and to meet the army which was with him.
Then went he by night away ; and the king on the morrow held a council,
and, together with all the army, declared him an outlaw, him and all
his sons. And he went south to Thorney, and his wife, and Sweyn his son,
and Tosty and his wife, Baldwin`s relation of Bruises, and Gnth his son.
And Harold, the earl, and Leofwine, went to Bristol in the ship which
Sweyn, the earl, had before got ready for himself, and pro\isioned. And
the king sent bishop Aldred § to London with a force ; and they were to
overtake him ere he came on ship-board : but they could not or they would
not. And he went out from Avonmouth, and met with such heavy weather
that he with difficulty got away ; and there he sustained much damage.
Then went he forth to Ireland when fit weather came. And Godwin,

Godwin`s earldom consisted of Wessex, Sussex, and Kent : Sweyn`f
of Oxford, Gloucester, Hereford, Somerset, and Berkshire : and Harold`i
of Essex, East-Anglia, Huntingdon, and Cambridgeshire.

t Of Mercia. J Of Northumbria. § Of \Vorc—ua


and those who were with him, went from Thomey to Bruges, to Baldwin*!
land, in one ship, with as much treasure as they nii<^lit therein best stow i\>r
each man. It would have seemed wondrous to every man who wua in
Kngland if any one before that had said that it sliould end thus ; for he had
been erewhile to that degree exalted, as if he ruled the king and all Eng-
land ; and his sons were earls and the king`s darlings, and his dau^-^htei
wedded and united to the king : she was brought to Wherwell, and they
delivered her to the abbess. Then, soon, came William, the earl,* Irom
beyond sea, with a great band of Frenchmen ; and the king ri.-ceivfd
him, and as many of his companions as it pleased him ; and let hmi away
at;ain. This same year was given to William, the priest, the bishopric of
London, which before had been given to Sparhafoc.

A. 1052. This year died Elfgive, the laily, relict of king Ethelred and
of king Canute, on the second before the Is ones of March. In the »mne
year Griffin, the Welsh king, plundered in Herefordshire, imtil he came
very nigh to Leominster ; and they gathered against liim, as well the
landsmen as the Frenchmen of the castle, and there were slain of the
English very many good men, and also of the Frenchmen ; that was on
the same day, on which, thirteen years before, Eadwine had been slain by
his companions.

A. 1052. In this year died Elfgive Emma, king Edward`s mother and
king Hardecanute`s. And in this same year, the king decreed, and his
council, that ships should proceed to Sandwich ; and they set Ralph, the
earl, and Odda, the earl,+ as head-men thereto. Then Godwin, the earl,
went out from Bruges with his ships to Ysendyck, and left it one day before
Midsummer`s-mass eve, so that he came to Is` ess, which is south of Rom-
ney. Then came it to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich ; and
they then went out after the other ships, and a land-force was ordered out
against the ships. Then during this, Godwin, the earl, was warned, and
then he went to Pevensey ; and the weather was very severe, so that
the earls could not learn what was become of Godwin, the carl. And then
Godwin, the earl, went out again, until he came once more to Bruges; and
the other ships returned again to Sandwich. And then it was decreed that
the ships should return once more to London, and that other earls and
commanders should be appointed to the ships. Then was it long that the ship-force all departed, and all of them wen* home. When
Godwin, the earl, learned that, then drew he up his sail, and his fleet, and
then "rent west direct to the Isle of Wight, and there landed and ravaged so
.ong there, until the people yielded them so much as they laid on them.
Ar.d then they went westward imtil they came to Portlani, and there they
landed, and did whatsoever harm they were able to do. Then was Harold
come out from Ireland with nine ships ; and then landed at Porlock, and
there much people was gathered against him ; but he failed not to procure
himself provisions. He proceeded further, and slew there a great number
of the people, and took of cattle, and of men, and of propeity as it suited
him. He then went eastward to his father : and then they both went east-
ward imtil they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took that which was
yet remaining for them. And then they wont thence to Pevensey, and
got Hway thence as many sh`w^ as were there fit for service, and so on vai48

t Of Devon.


until fie came to Ness, and got all the ships which were in Romney, and i»
Hythe, and in Folkstone. And theji they went east lo Dover, and theal
huided, and there took sliips and hostages, as many as they would, and i9
went to SandM`ich and did " hand " the same ; and everywnere hostage^
were given them, and provisions wherever they desired. And then thi^
went to North-mouth, and so toward London ; and some of the ships went
within Sheppey, and there did mucli harm, and went their way to King`a
Milton, and that they all burned, and betook themselves then toward
London after the earls. When the} came to London, there lay the king
and all the earls there against them, with fifty ships. Then the earls sent
to the king, and re(juired of him, that they might be held worthy of each
of those things which had been unjustly taken from them. Then the king,
however, resisted some while ; so long as until the people who were with
the earl were much stirred against the king and against his people, so that
the earl himself with difficulty stilled the people. Then bishop Stigand
interposed with God`s help, and the wise men as well within the town aa
without ; and they decreed that hostages should be set forth on either side :
and thus was it done. When archbishop Robert and the Frenchmen
learned that, they took their horses and went, some west to Pentecost`s
castle, some north to Robert`s castle. And archl)ishop Robert and bishop
Ulf went out at East-gate, and their companions, and slew and otherwise
injured many young men, and went their way direct to Eadulf`s-ness ; and
he there put himself in a crazy ship, and went direct over sea, and left his
all and all Christendom here on land, so as God would have it, inasmuch as
he had before obtained the dignity so as God would not have it. Then there
was a great council proclaimed without London : and all the earls and the
chief men who were in this land were at the council. There Godwin bore
forth his defence, and justified himself, before king Edward his lord, and
before all people of the land, that he was guiltless of that which was
laid against him, and against Harold his son, and all his children. And
the king gave to the earl and his children his full friendship, and full earl-
dom, and all that he before possessed, and to all the men who were with
him. And the king gave to the lady* all that she before possessed. And
they declared archbishop Robert utterly an outlaw, and all the French-
men, because they had made most of the difference between Godwin, the
earl, and the king. And bishop Stigand obtained the archbishopric of
Canterbury. In this same time Amwy, abbat of Peterborough, left the
abbacy, in sound health, and gave it to Leofric the monk, by leave of tha
king and of tlie monks ; and abbat Amwy lived afterwards eight years.
And abbat Leofric then (enriched) the minster, so that it was called the
Golden-borough. Then it waxed greatly, in land, and in gold, and in silver.
A. 1052. And went so to the Isle of Wight, and there took all the ships
which could be of any service, and hostages, and betook himself so eastward.
And Harold had landed with nine ships at Porlock, and slew there much
people, and took cattle, and men, and property, and went his way eastward
to his father, and they both went to Romney, to Hythe, to Folkstone, to
Dover, to Sandmch, and ever they took all the ships which they found,
which could be of any service, and hostage*, aU aa iiey proceeded ; and
wai then to London.



A. 1053. In this year was the king at Winchester at
Ea.«^ter, and Godwin, the earl, with him, and Harold, the
earl, his son, and Tosty. Then, on the second day c>f
Easter, sat he with the king at the feast : then suddenly sank
he down by the footstool, deprived of speech, and of all his
power, and he was then carried into the king`s chamber, and
they thought it would pass over : but it did not so ; but he
continued on, thus speechless and powerless, until the Thurs-
day, and then resigned his life : and he lies there within the
Old -minster. And his son Harold succeeded to his earldom,
and resigned that which he before held ; and Elgar suc-
ceeded tliereto. This same year died Wulfsy, bishop of
Lichfield, and Leofwine, abbat of Coventiy succeeded to the
bishopric ; and Egelward, abbat of Glastonbury, died, and
Godwin, abbat of Winchcomb. Moreover, the Welshmen
slew a great number of the English people, of the wardmen,
near Westbury. In this year there was no archbishop in
this land ; but bishop Stigand held the bishopric of Canter-
bury at Christchurch, and Kynsey of York ; and Leofwine
and Wulfwy went over sea, and caused themselves to be there
ordained bishops ; Wulfwy obtained the bishopric which Ulf
had,* he being yet living and driven from it.

A. 1053. This year was the great wind on Thomas `s-mass-night, ana
also the whole midwinter there was much wind ; and it was decreed that
ReeSjthe Welsh king`s brother, should be slain, because he had done harm
and his head was brought to Gloucester on Twelfth-day eve. And the
same year, before All Hallows-mass, died Wulfsy, bishop of Lichfield,
and Godwin, abbat of Winchcomb, and Egelward, abbat of Glastonbury,
all within one month, and Leofwine succeeded to the bishopric of Lich-
field, and bishop Aldredf took the abbacy at Winchcomb, and Egel-
noth succeeded to the abbacy at Glastonbury. And the same year died
Elfric, Odda`s brother at Deorhurst ; and his body resteth at Pershore
And the same year died Godwin the earl ; and he fell ill as be sat with
the king at Winchester. And Harold his son succeeded to the earldom
which his father before held ; and Elgar, the earl, succeeded to the earl-
dom which Harold before held.

A. 1053. In this year died Godwin, the earl, on the 17th before the
Kalends of May, and he is buried at Winchester, in the Oid-rainster ; and
Harold, the earl, his son, succeeded to the earldom, and to all that which
his father had held : and Elgar, the earl, succeeded to the earldom which
Harold before held.

A. 1054. This year went Siward the earl± with a great
army into Scotland, and made much slaughter of the Scots
Dorchester. f Of Worcester. X Of Northumbria.


130 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, a.d. ior>*, 1055.

and put them to flight : and the king escaped. Moreover,
many fell on his side, as well Danish-men as English, and also
his own son.* The same year was consecrated the minster
at Evesham, on the 6th before the Ides of October. In the
same year bishop Aldredf went south over sea into Saxony,
and was there received with much reverence. That same
year died Osgod Clapa suddenly, even as he lay on his
bed. In this year died Leo [IX.] the holy pope of Rome.
And in this year there was so great a murrain among cattle,
as no man remembered for many years before. And Victor
[II.] was chosen pope.

1054. This year went Siward the earl with a great army into Scotland,
both with a ship-force and with a land-force, and fought against the Scots,
and put to Bight king Macbeth, and slew all who were the chief men in the
land, and led thence much booty, such as no man before had obtained.
But his son Osborn, and his sister`s son Siward, and some of his house-carls,
and also of fhe king`s, were there slain, on the day of the Seven Sleepers.
The same year went bishop Aldred to Cologne, over sea, on the king`s
errand ; and he was there received with much worship by the emperor,J
and there he dwelt well nigh a year ; and either gave him entertainment,
both the bishop of Cologne and the emperor. And he gave leave to
bishop Leofwine§ to consecrate the minster at Evesham on the 6th before the
Idea of October. In this year died Osgod suddenly in his bed. And this
year died St. Leo the pope ; and Victor was chosen pope in his stead.

A. 1055. In this year died Siward the earl at York, and his
body lies within the minster at Galmanho, || which himself had
before built, to the glory of God and of all his saints. Then,
within a little time after, was a general council in London,
and Elgar the earl, Leofric the earl`s son, was outlawed
without any kind of guilt ; and he went then to Ireland, and
there procured himself a fleet, which was of eighteen ships,
besides his own : and they went then to Wales, to king
Griffin,^ with that force ; and he received him into his pro-
tection. And then, with the Irishmen and with Welshmen,
they gathered a great force : and Ralph the earl gathered a
great force on the other hand at Hereford-port. And they
sought them out there : but before there was any spear
thrown, the English people fled because they were on horses |

* Osbom. + Of "Worcester.

i Henry III. fj Of Lichfield.

I A Saxon abf ey, merged afterwardi in St Maiy^ at York.

i Of North Walw.


and there great slaughter was made, about four hundr<^ci
men oi five ; and they made none on the other side. And
they then betook themaelves to the town, and that they
burned ; and the great minster which Athelstan the vene
rable bishop before caused to be built, that they plundered
*.nd bereaved of relics and of vestments, and of all things s
and slew the people, and some they led away. Then a force
was gathered from well nigh throughout all England, and
they came to Gloucester, and so went out, not far, among
the Welsh ; and there they lay some while : and Harold the
earl caused the ditch to be dug about the port* the while.
Then, during this, then spoke they concerning peace ; and
Harold the earl, and those who were with him, came to
Bilsley : and there peace and friendship was established
between them. And then they inlawed Elgar the earl,
and gave him all that before had been taken from him ; ar^d
the fleet went to Chester, and there awaited their pay, which
Elgar had promised them. The man-slaying was on the
rsinth before the Kalends of November. In the same year
died Tremerin the Welsh bishop, f soon after that ravaging ;
he was bishop Athelstan`s coadjutor from the time that be
had become infirm.

A. 1055. In this year died Siward the earl at York, and he lies at
Galmanho, in the minster which himself caused to be built, and consecrated
in God`s and Olave`s name. And Tosty succeeded to the earldom which he
had held. And archbishop KynseyJ fetched his pall from pope Victor.
And soon thereafter was outlawed Elgar the earl, son of Leofric the earl,
well-nigh without guilt. But he went to Ireland and to Wales, and pro-
cured himself there a great force, and so went to Hereford : but there came
against him Ralph the earl, with a large army. And with a slight conflict
he put them to flight, and much people slew in tne flight : and they went then
into Hereford-port, and that they ravaged, and burned the great minster
which bishop Athelstan had built, and slew the priests within the minster,
and many in addition thereto, and took all the treasures therein, and carried
them away with them. And when they had done the utmost evil, this
counsel was counselled : that Elgar the earl should be inlawed, and be
given his earldom, and all that had been taken from him. This ravaging
happened on the 9th before the Kalends of November. In the same year
died Tremerin the Welsh bishop,$ soon after that ravaging : and he waa
bifhop Athelstan`s coadjutor from the time that he had become infirm.

A. 1055. In this year died Siward the earl : and then was siraimoived a
general coimcil, seven days before Mid-lent ; and they outlawed Elgsv *he
eurl, because it was cast upon him that he was a traitor to the king aivi to

Hereford. f Of St. David`s. J Of York. $ Of St David`*


132 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. a.d 1056.1057.

flll the people of the land. And he made a rorfession of it before all th«
men wlio were there gathered ; though the word escaped hiin uninten-
tionally. And the king gave the earldom to Testy, son of eai-1 Godwin,
w-hich Siward the earl before held. And Elgar the earl sought Griffin`s
protection in North-Wales. And in this year Griffin and Elgar burned St.
Kltheibert`s minster, and all the town of Hereford.

A. 1056. This year bishop Egelric gave up his bishopric
his brother Egelwine succeeded thereto. This year died
Athelstan the venerable bishop, on the 4th before the Ides
of February, and liis body lies at Hereford-port ; and Leof-
gar was appointed bishop ; he was the mas--priest of Harold
the earl. He wore his knapsack during his priesthood
until he was a bishop. He forsook his chrism and his rood,
his ghostly weapons, and took to his spear and his sword,
after his bishophood ; and so went to the field against Griffin
the Welsh king : and there was he slain, and his priests
with him, and Elnoth the sheriff and many good men with
them ; and the others fled away. This was eight days
before midsummer. It is difficult to tell the distress, and
ail the marching, and the camping, and the travail and de-
struction of men, and also of horses, which all the English
army endured, until Leofric the earl* came thither, and
Harold the earl, and bishop Aldi-ed,f and made a reconcilia-
tion there between them ; so that Griffin swore oaths that he
v/ould be to king Edward a faithful and unbetraying under-
ki ng. And bishop Aldred succeeded to the bishopric
v/hich Leofgar had before held eleven weeks and four days.
In the same year died Cona| the emperor. This year
died Odda the earl,§ and his body lies at Pershore, and he
was ordained a monk before his end ; a good man he was
and pure, and right noble. And he died on the 2nd before
the Kalends of September.

A. 1057.
Here came Edward etheling
to Angle-land ;
\e was king Edward`s
bother`s son,
Edmund king,
who Ironside was called

for his valour.

This etheling Canute king

had sent away

to Unger-land||

to be betrayed :

but he there grew up

to a good man.

Of Mercia. f Of Worcester. t Hon. IIL

( Of Devon. y Hungary,


his kinsman Edward

kinoj beliold.

Alas ! that was a rueful caso

and harmful

for all this nation

that he so soon

his life did end [came

after that he to Angle-lard

for the mishap

of this wretched nation.

a8 Gf.J him granted.

and him well became ;

so that he obtained [wife,

tlie emperor`s kinswoman to

and by her, fair

offspring he begot :

she was Agatha hight.

Nor wist we

for which cause

that done was,

that he might not

In the same year died Leofric the earl,* on the second befor©
the kalends of October ; he was very wise for God and also
for the world, which was a blessing to all this nation. He
lies at Coventry ; and his son Elgar succeeded to his govern-
ment. And within the year died Ralph, the earlf on th«
12th before the kalends of January; and he lies at Peter-
borough. Moreover, bishop Heca died in Sussex, and Agel-
ric was raised to his secj And this year pope Victor died,
and Stephen [IX. J was chosen pope.

A. 1057. In this year Edward etheling, king Edmund`8 son, camenither
to land, and soon after died : and his body is buried within St. Paul`s min-
ster at London. And pope Victor died, and Stephen [IX.] was chostn
pope : he was abbat of Mont-Cassino. And Leofric the earl died, and
Elgar his son succeeded to the earldom which the father before held.

A. 1058. This year Elgar, the earl,§ was banished ; but
he soon came in again, with violence, through Griffin`s || aid.
And this year came a fleet from Norway : it is tedious to
tell how all these matters went. In the same year bishop
Aldredlf consecrated the minster at Gloucester, wliich himself
liad raised to the glory of God and of St. Peter ; and so he
went to Jerusalem with such splendour as none other h?.d
displayed before him, and there devoted himself to God: ami
a worthy gift he also offered at our Lord`s tomb ; that was u
golden chalice of five marks of very wonderful work. In
the same year died Pope Stephen [IX.], and Benedics
[^X.]| was appointed pope : he sent a pall to bishop Stiganil

* OfMercia. f Of Hereford.

t Selaey. ^ Of Mercia.

H King of North Wales. 11 Of Worcester,


Algenc was ordained l»shop of Silsstx * and abbat Siward
of Rochester.

A. 1058. This year died Pope Stephen, and Benedict was consec^ted
pope : the same sent hither to land a pall to archbishop Stigand. And
in this year died Heca, bishop of Sussex ; and archbishop Stigand
ordained Algeric, a monk at Christchurch, bishop of Sussex, and abbat
Siward bishop of Rochester.

A. 1059. In this year was Nicholas fll.] chosen pope,
he had before been bishop of the town of Florence ; and
Benedict was driven awaj, who had there before been pope.
And in this year was the steeple consecrated at Peter-
borough, on the 16th before the Kalends of November.

A. 1060. In this year there was a great earthquake on
the Translation of St. Martin : and king Henry died in
France. And Kynsey, archbishop of York, departed on the
11th before the Kalends of January, and he lies at Peter-
borough ; and bishop Aldred succeeded to the bishopric, and
Walter succeeded to the bishopric of Herefordshire : and
bishop Dudoc also died ; he was bishop in Somerset ;j" and
Giso the priest was appointed in his stead.

A. 1061. This year bishop Aldred went to Rome after
his pall, and he received it from Pope Nicholas. And Tosty
and his wife also went to Rome ; and the bishop and the
earl suffered much distress as they came homeward. And
this year died Godwin, bishop of St. Martin`s 4 ^"^ Wulfric
abbat of St. Augustine`s, on the 14th before the Kalendj^ of
April [May?]. And Pope Nicholas died, and Alexander
[IL] was chosen pope : he had been bishop of Lucca.

A. 1061. In this year died Dudoc, bishop of Somerset, and Giso succeedeo .
And in the same year died Godwin, l)ishop of St. Martin`s, on the 7th
before the Ides of March. And in the self-same year died Wulfric, abbat
of St. Augustine`s, within the Easter week, on the 14th before the
Kalends of May. When word came to the king that abbat Wulfric was
departed, then chose he Ethelsy the monk thereto, from the Old-Min-
ster, who then followed archbishop Stigand, and was consecrated abbat at
Windsor, on St. Augustine`s mass-day.

A. 1062.

A. 1063. In this year, after raidwintp.r, Harold, the earl^

went from Gloucester to Rhyddlan, which was Griffin`s, and

burned the vill, and his ships, and all the stores which

thereto belonged, and put liim to flight. And then, at Roga*

* Selsey f Weiu. t At Canterbuty


tion-tide, Harold went with his ships from Bristol about
Wales ; and the people made a truce and delivered hostages ;
and Tostj went with a land-force against them : and they
subdued the land. But in this same year, during harvest,
was king Griffin slain, on the Nones of August, by his own
men, by reason of the war that he warred with Harold the
earl. He was king over all tlie Welsli race : and his head
was brought to Harold the earl, and Harold brought it to the
king, and his ship`s head, and the rigging therewith. And
king Edward committed the land to his two brothers, Bleth-
gent and Rigwatle ; and they swore oaths, and delivered
hostages to the king and to the earl, that they would be
faithful to him in all things, and be everywhere ready for
him, by water and by land, and make such renders from the
land as had been done before to any other king.

A. 1063. This year went Harold the earl, and his brother Tosty the
earl, as well with a land-force as a ship-force, into Wales, and they sub-
dued the land ; and the people delivered hostages to them, and submitted ;
and went afterwards and slew their king Griffin, and brought to Harold his
head: and he appointed another king thereto.

A. 1064.

A. 1065. Li this year, before Lammas, Harold the earl
ordered a building to be erected in Wales at Portskeweth,
after he had subdued it ; and there he gathered much good ;
and thought to have king Edward there for the purpose of
hunting. But when it was all ready, then went Caradoc,
Griffin`s son, with the whole force wliich he could procure,
and slew almost all the people who there had been building ;
and they took the good which there was prepared. We wist
not who first devised this ill counsel. This was done on St.
Bartholomew`s mass-day. And soon after this, all the thanes
in Yorkshire and in Northumberland gathered themselves
together, and outlawed their earl, Tosty, and slew his house-
hold men, aU that they might come at, as well English as
Danish : and they took all his weapons at York, and gold,
and silver, and all his treasures which they might any where
there hear of, and sent after Morkar, the son of Elgar the
earl, and chose him to be their earl : and he went south with
all the shire, and with Nottinghamshire, and Derbyshire,
and Lincolnshire, until he came to Northampton : and his
brother Edwin came ty neet him with the men who wer«



in his earldom, and also many Britons camo with him.
There came Harold, the earl, to meet them ; and they laid
an errand upon him to king Edward, and also sent messen-
gers with him, and begged that they might have Morkar for
their earl. And the king granted it, and sent Harold again
to them at Northampton, on the eve of St. Simon`s and
St. Jude`s mass ; and he made known the same to them, and
deliverdd a pledge thereof unto them : and he there renewed
Canute`s law. But the northern men did much harm
about Northampton whilst he went on their errand, irjfl"
much as they slew men and burned houses and corn ; and
took all the cattle which they might come at, that was many
thousand : and many hundrod men they took and led north
^vith them ; so that that shire, and the other shires which
there are nigh, were for many years the worse. And Tosty
the earl, and his wife, and all those who would what he
would, went south over sea with him to Baldwin, the earl,
and he received them all ; and they were all the winter
there. And king Edward came to Westminster at midwin-
ter, and there caused to be consecrated the minster which him-
self had built to the glory of God and of St. Peter, and of
all God`s saints ; and the church-hallowing was on Childer-
mass-day. And he died on Twelfth-day eve, and him they
buried on Twelfth-day eve, in the same minster, as it here-
after sayeth.

Here Edward king,

of Angles lord,

gent his stedfast

soul to Christ,

in God`s protection,

spirit holy.

He in the world here

dwelt awhile

in royal majesty

mighty in council.


lordly ruler !

of winters numbered,

he wealth dispensed ;

and he a prosperous tide;

ruler of heroes,

I distinguished governed,

j Welsh and Scots,
and Britons also,
son of Ethelred,
Angles and Saxons,
chieftains bold.
Where`er embrace
cold ocean-waves,
there all to Edward,
noble king !
obeyed faithfully,
the warrior-men.
Aye was blithe-mind
the harmless king,
though he long erst

> of land bereaved.

A.i>. 1005,1066. THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 137

in exile dwelt

mde o`er the earth,

since Canute o`ercame

.he race of Ethelred,

and Danes wielded

the dear realm

of Angle-land,


of winters numbered,

wealth dispensed.

After forth-came,

in vestments lordly,

king with the chosen good,

chaste and mild,

Edward the noble :

the realm he guarded,

land and people,

until suddenly came

death the bitter,
and so dear a one seized
This noble, from earth
angels carried,
stedfast soul,
into heaven`s light.
And the sage ne`erthelcss,
the realm committed
to a highly-born man,
Harold`s self,
the noble earl !
He in all time
obeyed faithfully
his rightful lord
by words and deeds,
nor aught neglected
which needful was
to his sovereign -king.

And this year also was Harold consecrated king ; and he with
little quiet abode therein, the while that he wielded the

A. 1065. And the man-slaying was on St. Bartholomew`s mass-day.
And then, after Michael`s-mass, all the thanes in Yorkshire went to York,
and there slew all earl Tosty`s household servants whom they might
hear of, and took his treasures : and Tosty was then at Britford with the
king. And then, very soon thereafter, was a great council at Northamp-
ton ; and then at Oxford on the day of Simon and Jude. And there was
Harold the earl, and would work their reconciliation if he might, but he could
not : but all his earldom him unanimously forsook and outlawed, and all
who with him lawlessness upheld, because he robbed God first, and all
those bereaved over whom he had power of life and of land. And they then
took to themselves Morkar for earl ; and Tosty went then over sea, and his
\«nfe with him, to Baldwin`s land, and they took up their winter residence
at St. Omer`s.

A. 1066. In this year king Harold came from York to
Westminster, at that Easter which was after the mid-winte
in which the king died ; and Easter was then on tlie day
16th before the Kalends of May. Then was, over all Eng
land, such a token seen in the heavens, as no man ever
before saw. Some men said that it was cometa the star,
which some men call the haired star ; and it appeared first
on the eve Litania Major, the 8th before the Kalends cf Ma^


and 80 shone all the seven nights. And soon after came In
`J`osty the earl from beyond sea into the Isle of Wight, with
80 great a fleet as he might procure ; and there they yielded
him as well money as food. And king Harold, his brother,
gathered so great a ship-force, and also a land-force, as no king
here in the land had before done ; because it was made known
to hira that William the bastard would come hither and win
this land ; all as it afterwards happened. And the wliile,
came Tosty the earl into Humber with sixty ships ; and
Edwin the earl came with a land-force and di-ove him out.
And the boatmen forsook him ; and he went to Scotland
with twelve vessels. And there met him Harold king of
Norway with three hundred ships ; and Tosty submitted to
him and became his man. And they then went both into
Humber, until they came to York ; and there fought against
them Edwin the earl, and Morkar the earl, his brother :
but the Northmen had the victory. Then was it made known
to Harold king of the Angles that this had thus happened :
and this battle was on the vigil of St. Matthew. Then came
Harold our king unawares on the Northmen, and met with
them beyond York, at Stanford-bridge, with a great army
of Enghsh people ; and there during the day was a very
severe fight on both sides. There was slain Harold the Fair-
haired, and Tosty the earl ; and the Northmen who were there
remaining were put to flight ; and the English from behind
hotly smote them, until they came, some, to their ships, some
were drowned, and some also burned ; and thus in divers
ways they perished, so that there were few left : and the
English had possession of the place of carnage. The king
then gave his protection to Olave, son of the king of the Nor-
wegians, and to their bishop, and to the earl of Orkney, and
to all those who were left in the ships : and they then went
up to our king, and swore oaths that they ever would observe
peace and friendship towards this land ; and the king In.t
them go home with twenty-four ships. These two general
battles were fought within five days. Then came William
earl of Normandy into Pevensey, on the eve of St. Michael`s-
mass : and soon after they were on their way, they construc-
ted a castle at Hasting`s-port. This was then made knowa
to king Harold, and he then gathered a great force, and came
to maet him at the estuary of Appledore ; and William came


against him unawares, before his people were set in order.
But the king nevertheless strenuously fought against liiiii
with those men who would follow him ; and there was great
slaughter made on either hand. There was slain king
Harold, and Leofwin the earl, his brother, and Girth the
earl, his brother, and many good men ; and the Frenchmen
had possession of the place of carnage, all as God granted
them for the people`s sins. Archbishop Aldred and tlie
townsmen of London would then have child Edgar for king,
all as was his true natural right : and Edwin and Morcar
vowed to him that they would fight together with him. But
in that degree that it ought ever to have been forwarder, so
was it from day to day later and worse ; so that at the end
all passed away. This fight was done on the day of Calix-
lus the pope. And William the earl went afterwards again
to Hastings, and there awaited to see whether the people
would submit to him. But when he understood that they
would not come to him, he went upwards with all his army
which was left to him, and that which afterwards had come
from over sea to him ; and he plundered all that part which
he over-ran, until he came to Berkhampstead. And there
came to meet him archbishop Aldred,* and child Edgar,
and Edwin the earl, and Morcar the earl, and aU the
chief men of London ; and then submitted, for need, when
the most harm had been done : and it was very unwise that
they had not done so before ; since God would not better it,
for our sins : and they delivered hostages, and swore oaths
to him ; and he vowed to them that he would be a loving
lord to them : and nevertheless, during this, they plundered
all that they over-ran. Then, on mid-winter`s day, arch-
bishop Aldred consecrated him king at Westminster ; and he
gave him a pledge upon Christ`s book, and also swore, before
he would set the crown upon his head, that he would govern
this nation as well as any king before him had at the best
done, if they would be faithful to him. Nevertheless, he
laid a tribute on the people, very heavy ; and then went, du-
ring Lent, over sea to Normandy, and took with him arch-
bishop Stigand, and Aylnoth, abbat of Glastonbury, and
child Edgar, and Edwin the earl, and Morkar the earl,
4nd Waltheof the earl, and many other good men of Eng«
Of York.


land. And bishop Odo* and William the earl remained here
behind, and they built castles wide throughout the nation,
and poor people distressed ; and ever after it greatly grew
in evil. May the end be good when God will !

A. 1066. This year died king Edward, and Harold the earl succeeded
to the kingdom, and held it forty weeks and one day. And this year came
William, and won England. And in this year Christ-Church f was burned.
And this year appeared a comet on the 14th before the Kalends of May.

A. 1U66. . . . J And then he [Tosty] went thence, and did harm everywhere
by the sea-coast where he could land, as far as Sandwich. Then was it
made known to king Harold, who was in London, that Tosty his brother
was come to Sandwich. Then gathered he so great a ship-force, and also
a land force, as no king here in the land had before gathered, because it
had been soothly said unto him, that William the earl from Normandy,
king Edward`s kinsman, would come hither and subdue this land: all as
it afterwards happened. When Tosty learned that king Harold was
on his way to Sandwich, then went he from Sandwich, and took some of
the boatmen \vith him, some willingly and some unwillingly ; and went
then north into Humber, and there ravaged in Lindsey, and there slew
many good men. When Edwin the earl and Morcar the earl understood
that, then came they thither, and drove him out of the land. And he went
then to Scotland : and the king of Scots protected him, and assisted him
with provisions ; and he there abode all the summer. Then came king
Harold to Sandwich, and there awaited his fleet, because it was long before
it could be gathered together. And when his fleet was gathered together,
then went he into the Isle of Wight, and there lay all the summer and the
harvest ; and a land-force was kept every where by the sea, though in the
end it was of no benefit. When it was the Nativity of St. Mary, then were
the men`r provisions gone, and no man could any longer keep them there.
Then were the men allowed to go home, and the king rode up, and the
ships were despatched to London ; and many perished before they came
thither. When the ships had reached home, then came king Harold from
Norway, north into Tyne, and unawares, with a very large ship-force, and
no small one; that might be, or more. And Tosty the earl came to him
with all that he had gotten, all as they had before agreed ; and then the)`
went both, with all the fleet, along the Ouse, up towards York. Then was
it made known to king Harold in the south, as he was come from on ship-
board, that Harold king of Norway and Tosty the earl were landed near
York. Then went he northward, day and night, as quickly as he couM
gather his forces. Then, before that king Harold could come thither, then
gathered Edwin the earl and Morcar the earl from their earldom as great a
force as they could get together ; and they fought against the army, and
made great slaughter : and there was much of the English people slain,
and drowned, and driven away in flight ; and the Northmen had possession
of the place of carnage. And this fight was on the vigil of St. Matthew
the apostle, and it was Wednesday. And then, after the fight, went Ha-
rold king of Norway, and Tosty the earl, into York, with as much people
Odo, bishop of Bayeux, half brother of king William, ani Wiliia^
Fit7. Osbert, created earl of Hereford. + Canterbury,

^ Continued after `* money as food/` in page 440.


as seemed meet to them. And they deh`vered hostages to them froix the
city, and also assisted them with provisions ; and so they went tlience to
their ships, and tliey agreed upon a full peace, so that they should all go
with him south, and` this land subdue. Then, during this, came Harold
king of the Angles, with, all his forces, on the Sunday, to Tadcaster, and
there drew up his force, and went then on Monday throughout York ; and
Harold king of Norway, and Tosty the earl, and their forces, were gone
from their ships beyond York to Stanfordbridge, because it had been pro-
mised them for a certainty, that there, from all the shire, hostages should
be brought to meet them. Then came Harold king of the English against
them, unawares, beyond the bridge, and they there joined battle, and very
Btrenuously, for a long time of the day, continued fighting : and there was
Harold king of Norway and Tosty the earl slain, and nnmberless of tl>e
people with them, as well of the Northmen as of the English : and the
Northmen fled from the English. Then was there one of the Norwegians
who withstood the English people, so that they might not pass over tlie
bridge, nor obtain the victory. Then an Englishman aimed at him witn a
javelin, but it availed nothing ; and then came another under the bridge, and
pierced him terribly inwards under the coat of mail. Then came Harold,
king of the English, over the bridge, and his forces onward with him, and
there made great slaughter, as well of Norwegians as of Flemings. And
the king`s son, Edmund, Harold let go home to Norway, with all the ships.
A. 1066, In this year was consecrated the minster at Westminster, on
Childer-mass-tlay. And king Edward died, on the eve of Twelfth-day ;
and he was buried on Twelfth-day, within the newly consecrated church at
Westminster. And Harold the earl succeeded to the kingdom of England,
even as the king had granted it to him, and men also had chosen him
thereto ; and he was cro\vned as king on Twelfth-day. And that same year
that he became king, he went out with a fleet against William ;* and the
while, came Tosty the earl into Humber with sixty ships. Edwin the earl
came with a land-force and drove him out ; and the boatmen forsook him.
And he went to Scotland with twelve vessels ; and Harold the king of Nor-
way met him with three hundred ships, and Tosty suljmitted to him ; and
they both went into Humber, until they came to York. And Morcar tlie
earl, and Edwin the eai-1, fought against them ; and the king of the NorAve-
gians had the victory. And it was made known to king Harold how it
there was done, and had happened ; and he came there with a great army
of English men, and met him at Stanfordbridge, and slew him and the e^irl
Tosty, and boldly overcame a`l the army. And the while, William the
earl landed at Hastings, on St. Michael`s-day : and Harold came from the
north, and fought against him before all his army had come up : and there
he fell, and his two brothers. Girth and Leofwin ; and William subdued
this land. And he came to Westminster, and archbishop Aldred conse-
crated him king, and men paid him tribute, and delivered him hostages,
and afterwards bought their land. And then was Leofric abbat of Peter-
borough in that same expedition ; and there he sickened, and came home,
and was dead soon thereafter, on All-hallows- mass-night; God be merciful
to his soul ! In his day was all bliss and all good in Peterborough ; and
he was dear to all people, so that the king gave to St. Peter and to him
the abbacy at Bmton, and that of Coventry, which Leofric the earl, who

* Earl of Normandy.


was Ilk uncle, before had made, and that of Crowland, and that of Thor-
ney. And he conferred so much of good upon the minster of Feter-
Dorough, in gold, and in silver, and im vestments, and in land, as never any
other did before him, nor any after him. After, Golden-borough became
a wretched borough. Then chose the monks for abbat Brand the provost,
by reason that he was a very good man, and very wise, and sent him then
to Edgar the etheling, by reason that the people of the land supposed that
he should become king: and the etheling granted it him then gladly.
When king William heard say that, then was he very wroth, and said that
the abbat had despised him. Then went good men between them, and
reconciled them, by reason that the abbat was a good man. Then gave he
the king forty marks of gold for a reconciliation ; and then thereafter,
lived he a little while, but three years. After that came every tribulatior
and every evil to the minster. God have mercy on it !

A. 1067. This year the king came back to England on
St. Nieolas`s day, and on the same day Christ`s Church,
Canterbury, was consumed by fire. Bishop Wulfwy also
died, and lies buried at his see of Dorche.`^ter. Child Edric
and the Britons were unsettled this year, and fought with
the men of the castle at Hereford, to whom they did much
harm. The king this year imposed a heavy tax on the
unfortunate people ; but, notwithstanding, he let his men
plunder all the country which they passed through : after
which he marched to Devonshire and besieged Exeter
eighteen days. Many of his army were slain there : but he
had promised them well and performed ill : the citizens
surrendered the city, because the thanes had betrayed them.
This summer the child Edgar, with his mother Agatha, his
sisters Margaret and Christina, Merlesweyne and several
good men, went to Scotland under the protection of king
Malcolm, who received them all. Then it was that king
Malcolm desired to have Margaret to wife: but, the child
Edgar and all his men refused for a long time : and
she herself also was unwilling, saying that she would have
neither him nor any other person, if God would allow her to
serve him with her carnal heart, in strict continence, during
this short life. But the king urged her brother until he said
yes ; and indeed he did not dare to refuse, for they were now
in Malcolm`s kingdom. So that the marriage was now
fulfilled, as God had foreordained, and it could not be
otherwise, as he says in the Gospel, that not a sparrow falls
to the ground, without his foreshowing. The prescient
Creator knew long befoie what he would do with her


namely that slie should increase the glory of God in thiH
land, lead the king out of the wrong into the right path,
bring him and his people to a better way, and suppress all
the bad customs which the nation formerly followed. These
things sh3 afterwards accomplished. The king therefore
married her, though against her will, and was pleased with
her manners, and thanked God who had given him such a
wife. And being a prudent man he turned himself to God
and forsook all impurity of conduct, as St. Paul, the apostle
of the Gentiles, says : " Salvabitur vir^"* SfC. which means in
our language " Full oft the unbelieving husband is sanctified
and healed through the believing wife, and so belike the wife
through the believing husband." The queen above-named
afterwards did many things in this land to promote the glory
of God, and conducted herself well in her noble rank, as
always was her custom. She was sprung from a noble line
of ancestors, and her father was Edward Etheling, son of
king Edmund. This Edmund was the son of Ethelred, who
was the son of Edgar, the son of Edred ; and so on in that
royal line. Her maternal kindred traces up to the emperor
Henry, who reigned at Rome.

This year Harold`s mother, Githa, and the wives of many
good men with her, went to the Steep Holmes, and th^re
abode some time ; and afterwards went from thence over sea
to St. Omer`s.

This Easter the king came to Winchester ; and Easter was
then on the tenth day before the Kalends of April. Soon
after this the lady Matilda came to this country, and arch-
bishop Eldred consecrated her queen at Westminster on
Whitsunday. It was then told the king, that the people in
the North had gathered together and would oppose him
there. Upon this he went to Nottingham, and built a castle
there, and then advanced to York, where he built two castles :
he then did the same at Lincoln, and everywhere in those
parts. Then earl Cospatric and all the best men went into
Scotland. During these things one of Harold`s sons came
with a fleet from Ireland unexpectedly into the mouth of the
river Avon, and soon plundered all that neighbourhood.
They went to Bristol, and would have stormed the town, but
the inhabitants opposed them bravely. Seeing they oould
get nothing from the town, they went to their ships with th«

144 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. a.b. iocs, wea.

booty thpy had got by plundering, and went to Somersetshire,
where they went up the country. Ednoth, master of the
horse, fought with them, but he was slain there, and many
^ood men on both sides ; and thosft who were left departed

A. 1068. This year king William gave the earldom of
Northumberland to earl Robert, and the men of that country
came against him, and slew him and 900 others with him.
And then Edgar etheling marched with all the Northum-
brians to York, and the townsmen treated with him ; on
which king William came from the south with all his troops,
and sacked the town, and slew many hundred persons. He
also profaned St. Peter`s minster, and all other places, and
the etheling went back to Scotland.

After this came Harold`s sons from Ireland, about Mid
summer, with sixty-four ships and entered the mouth of the
Taff, where they incautiously landed. Earl Beorn camt,
upon them unawares with a large army, and slew all their
bravest men : the others escaped to their ships, and Harold*3
sons went back again to Ireland.

A. 1069. This year died Aldred archbishop of York, and
he lies buried in his cathedral church. He died on the
festival of Protus and Hyacinthus, having held the see with
much honour ten years, all but fifteen weeks.

Soon after this, three of the sons of Sweyne came from
Denmark with 240 ships, together with earl Osbern and
earl Thorkill, into the Humber ; where they were met by
child Edgar and earl Waltheof, and Merle- Sweyne, and
earl Cospatric with the men of Northumberland and all the
landsmen, riding and marching joyfully with an immense
army ; and so tiiey went to York, demolished the castle, and
found there large treasures. They also slew many hundred
Frenchmen, and carried off many prisoners to their ships ;
but, before the shipmen came thither, the Frenchmen had
burned the city, and plundered and burnt St. Peter`s minster.
When the king heard of this, he went northward with all
the troops he could collect, and laid waste all the shire ;
whilst the fleet lay all the winter in the Huinber, where the
king could not get at them. The king was at York on
midwinter`s day, remaining on land all the winter, and at
Easter he came to Winchester,


Tliis year bishop Egelric being at Peterboroiigh, wag
accused and sent to Westminster ; and his brother bishop
Egehvin was outlawed. And the same year Brand abbat
of Peterborough died on the fifth before the Kalends of

A. 1070. This year Lanfranc abbat of Caen came to
England, and in a few days he was made archbishop of
Canterbury. He was consecrated * at his metropolis on the

In the second year after Lanfranc`s consecration he went to Home,
pope Alexander so greatly honoured him, that contrary to his custom lie
rose to meet him, and gave him two palls in token of especial favour :
Lanfranc received one of them from the altar after the Roman manner,
and the pope, with his own hands, gave him the other, in which he himself
had been accustomed to perform mass. In the presence of the pope,
Thomas brought forwards a calumny touching the primacy of the see of
Canterbury, and the subjection of certain bishops. Lanfranc briefly and
clearly states the conclusion to which this affair Avas afterwards brought in
England, in an epistle to the aforesaid pope Alexander. This year a
general council was held at Winchester, in which he deposed Wulfric,
abbat of the new monastery, and made m.any regulations touching Christian
discipline. A few days afterwards, he consecrated Osbem at London as
bishop of Exeter, and Scotland at Canterbury as abbat of St. Augustine`s.

In his third year he consecrated Peter at Gloucester as bishop of Lich-
field or Chester. This year also a great council was held at a place called
Pennenden Heath [near Maidstone], in which Lanfranc proved that he
and his church held their lands and their rights by sea and by land, as
freely as the king held his : excepting in three cases : to wit, if the highway
be dug up ; if a tree be cut so as to fall upon it ; and if murder be com-
mitted and blood spilt : when a man is taken in these misdeeds, the fine
paid shall belong to the king ; otherwise their vassals shall be free from
regal exactions.

In his fourth year he consecrated Patrick at London as bishop of Dublin,
in Ireland, from whom he received a profession of obedience, and he
moreover gave him very memorable letters to the kings of Ireland.

In his fifth year a general council was held at London, the proceedings
of which Lanfranc committed to \vriting, at the request of many.

In his sixth year he gave the bishopric of Rochester to Emost, a monk
of Christ church, whom he also consecrated at London. A council waa
held at Winchester : and the same year Emost departed this life.

In his seventh year, he gave the bishopric of Rochester to Gundulph,
whom lie consecrated at Canterbury. This year Thomas archbishop of
York sent letters to Lanfranc, requesting that he would send two bishops
to consecrate a certain priest, who had come to him with letters from the
Orkneys, to the intent that he might be made bishop of those islands,
Lanfranc consenting to this, commanded Wolstan bishop of Worcester,
end Peter bishop of Chester, to go to York, and to assist Thomas in com-
pleting the ceremony.

In his eighth year, a council was held at London, in which Lanfi`aiic
deposed Ailnoth abbat of Glabiojibury.


fourtji before the Kalends of September, by eight bishops
hi3 suffhigans ; the rest who were absent signifying
through messengers, and by writing, why they could not be

In his eleventh year, a council was held at Gloucester, wherein, by the
king`s order, and with the consent of Lanfranc, Thomas archbishop of
York consecrated William to the bishopric of Dvu-ham ; and because he
could not be attended by the Scotch bishops his suffragans, the bishops
Wolstan, Osbem, Giso, and Robert assisted at this ceremony by the com-
mand of Lanfranc. At this time Lanfranc sent letters rich in sacred lore
to bishop Donald in Ireland.

In his sixteenth year Lanfranc consecrated Donatus, his monk at
Canterbury, to the bishopric of Dublin, by the desire of the king, clergy,
end people of Ireland. This year a council was held at Gloucester,
wherein Lanfranc deposed Wulstcetel abbat of Croyland. He consecrated
Robert to the bishopric of Chester, and William to that of Elmham, in
one day, at Canterbury. At Winchester also he consecrated Maurice as
bishop of London, who brought noble gifts to his mother church at Can-
terbiu-y a few davs afterwards.

In the eightet-`iith year of Lanfranc`s prelacy, on the death of king
William beyond sea, he acknowledged his son William, as he had done his
father, and consecrated and crowned him in St. Peter`s chiu-ch, which is ir.
the western part of London. The same year, and at his metropolitan city
of Canterbury, he examined and consecrated Godfrey as bishop of
Chichester, Wydo also as abbat of St. Augustine`s and John as bishop of
Wells. The next day Lanfranc on his own authority, and taking vnth him
Odo bishop of Bayeux the king`s brother, who was then at Canterbury,
conducted the abbat Wydo to St. Augustine`s and commanded the brothers
of the order to receive him as their own abbat and pastor ; but they, with
ne accord, answered that they would neither submit to him nor receive
nim. Thus Lanfranc came leading the abbat, and when he found that the
moi.ks were obstinate in resistance, and that they would not obey him, ho
commanded that all the refractory should come out one by one. When
therefore nearly all had left the monastery, Lanfranc and his suite led in
the abbat with much pomp, placed him in the chair, and delivered the
church up to him. He also seized the prior, Elfrin by name, and as many
others as he thought fit, and he put them forth`vvith into claustral imprison-
ment at Canterbury ; but he sent those who had the greatest influence, and
were the authors of this scandal, to the castle to be confined there. Afler
he had returned home having finished all, he was informed that the monks
who had left the monastery were assembled, near St. Mildred`s church.
Hereupon he sent to them, saying, that if they would, they might return
to the church before the ninth hoiu-, but that if they delayed longer, they
would not be allowed free entrance, but he treated as renegadoes. Having
heard this message they doubted whether to return or to remain, bi t at the
hour of refection, when they became hungry, many repenting of their
obstinacy sent to Lanfranc and promised submission. These he treated
with lenity, and desired that tney should return directly and confinn by
oath their profession of obedience to the aforesaid abbat. Thus they
returaed and iwore feithfulness and obedience to the abbat Wydo, upoa


there. This year Thomas, who had been chosen as bishop
of York, came to Canterbury, that he might be consecrated
there after the old form, but when Lanfranc craved tiie

the relics of St. Augustine. Lanfranc seized those who remained beliind
and placed them in various monasteries of England, confining them till he
brought them to profess their submission. About the same lime, he seized
one of them named Alfred, who had attempted to flee, and confined him
loaded with irons at Canterbury, together with some of his fellows : and he
exercised upon them the utmost severity of their order. But when these
monks were thought to be sufficiently humbled and had promised amend-
ment, Lanfranc taking pity on them, had them brought from the several
places whither he had banished them, and reconciled them to their abbat.

The same year the dissensions were renewed, and the monks plotted the
death of their abbat, but one of them, named Columban, being taken,
Lanfranc caused him to be brought to him. As he stood there before him,
Lanfranc asked if he desired to murder his abbat. And the monk forth-
with replied, " Yes ! if I could I would certainly kill him." Then Lan-
franc commanded that he should be tied up naked by the gates of St.
Augustine`s and suffpr flagellation before all the people, that his cowi
should then be torn off, and that he should be driven out of the city. Tliia
order was executed, and thenceforth, during Lanfranc`s life, sedition waa
repressed by the dread of his severity.

In the nineteenth year of his prelacy, died the venerable archbishop
Lanfranc, and he was buried at his metropolitan see of Canterbury, of
which he had been possessed eighteen years, nine months, and two days.
Hii deeds, his buildings, alms, and labours, are only in part recounted in
the writing which is read on his anniversary, for they were very numerous.
After his death the monks of St. Augustine`s, openly rebelling against their
aforesaid abbat Wydo, stirred up the citizens of Canterbury, who, with an
armed force, attempted to slay him in his house. But his family made
resistance, and when many had been wounded, and some killed on both
sides, the abbat with much difficulty escaped unhurt from amongst them,
and fled for refuge to the mother church of Canterbury (Christ`s church.)
On the report of this disturbance Walkelin bishop of Winchester, and
Gundolf bishop of Rochester, suffragans to the see of Canterbury, with
Btake vengeance on the delinquents ; and when they had inquired into the
causes of the sedition, and had found the monks unable to clear themselves,
they condemned them to suffer public punishment because they had trans-
gressed openly. But the prior and monks of Christ`s church, moved with
piety, pleaded against the sentence, lest, if they were to receive theii
discipline before all the people, they should henceforth be accounted
infamous, and so their profession and office come to be despised. Where-
fore it was granted on their intercession, that the punishment should take
place in the church, into which the populace should not be admitted, but
those only who were appointed to see it executed. And two monks of
Christ`s church, Wydo and Norman, were called in, and they inflicted the
puniahment at the command of the bishops. Then the rebellio\i8 monks
were dispersed into various monasteries of England; and twentv-four mouki


148 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHPvON-ICLE. a. p. 10:0.

confirmation of his Bubjection by oath, he refused, and said
that he was not obliged to give it. Then was the archbishop
Lanfranc wroth, and he commanded the bishops, who were
there at his behest to assist at the ceremony, and all the
monks, to unrobe themselves ; and they did as he desired ;
so this time Thomas returned home without consecration. It
happened soon after this, that the archbishop Lanfranc went
to Rome, and Thomas with him : and when they were come
ihither, and had said all that they desired on other subjects,
Tliomas began his speech, saying how he had come to
Canterbury, and how the archbishop had desired of him an
oath of obedience, and that he had refused it. Then tlie
archbishop Lanfranc began to make manifest with clear
reasoning, that he had a right to demand that which he
required : and he proved the same with strong arguments
before the Pope Alexander, and before all the council then
assembled : and thus they departed home. After this,
Thomas came to Canterbury, and humbly performed all that
the archbishop required, and thereupon he received the
blessing. This year earl Waltheof made peace with the
king. And during Lent in the same year the king caused all
the monasteries in England to be despoiled of their treasures.
The same year king Sweyn came from Denmark into the
Humber, and the people of those parts came to meet him and
made an alliance with him, for they believed that he would
conquer the land. Then the Danish bishop Christien, and
earl Osbern, and their Danish retainers, came into Ely, and
all the people of the fens joined them, for they believed that
they should conquer the wliole country. Now the monks of
Peterborougli were told that some of their own men, namely,

of Christ`s church were substituted in their place, together witli the prior,
named Anthony, who had been sub-prior at Christ`s church. The townsmen
wlio entered the abbat`s hall in amis were seized, and those who were con-
victed of having struck him lost their eyes.

After the death of Lanfranc the see remained vacant four years, nine
months, and nine days, during which time it suffered much adversity. At
length, in the year of our Lord`s incarnation 109^5, and on the second before
the Nones of March, the archbishopric of Canterbuiy was given to Anselm
abbat of Bee, a good and an upright man, of great learning, and amongst
the most noted of his time. He came to Canterbury on the seventh before
*.he Kalends of October, hia earlier arrival having been prevented by many
riiftcient causes, and he was consecrated on the second before the NL)ac«mber.


Hor(?ward and liis train, would pillage the monastery, because
they had lieard that tlie king had given the abbacy to a
French abbat named Turohl, and tliat he was a very stera
man, and that he was come into Stamford with all his French
followers. There was, at that time, a church-warden named
Ywar ; who took all that he could by night, gospels, mass-
robes, cassocks, and other garments, and such other small
things as he could carry away, and he came before day to the
abbat Turold, and told him that he sought his protection, and
told how the outlaws were coming to Peterborough, and he
said that he had done this at the desire of the monks. Then
early in the morning all the outlaws came with many ships,
and they endeavoured to enter the monastery, but the monks
withstood them, so that they were not able to get in. Then
they set fire to it, and burned all the monks` houses, and all
those in the town, save one : and they broke in through the
fire at Bolhithe-gate,* and the monks came before them and
desired peace. However they gave no heed to them, but
went into the monastery, and climbed up to the holy crucifix,
took the crown from our Lord`s head, which was all of the
purest gold, and the footstool of red gold from under his
feet. And tlry climbed up to the steeple, and brought down
the table f which was hidden there ; it was all of gold and
silver. They also seized two gilt shrines, and nine of silver,
and they carried off fifteen great crosses of gold and silver.
And they took so much gold and silver, and so much trc*asure
in money, robes, and books, that no man can compute the
amount ; saying they did this because of their allegiance to
the monastery : and afterwards they betook themselves to
their ships and went to Ely, where they secured their
treasures. The Danes believed that they should overcome the
Frenchmen, and they drove away all the monks, leaving only
one named Leofwin the Long, and he lay sick in the hospital.
Then came the abbat Turold, and eight score Frenchmen
with him, all well armed ; and when he arrived he found all
burnt both within and without, excepting the church itself ;
and all the outlaws were then embarked, knowing that he
would come thither. This happened on the fourth day before

Bull dyke Gate.

t Ingram so translates the word, referring to a Gallo-Nonnan poein
jMtbli&hed by Sharpe. Gibson, Lye, and Miss Gurney reiid " cope."


the Nones of June. Then the two kings, William and Sweyn,
made peace with each other, on which the Danes departed
from Ely, carrying witli them all the aforesaid treasure.
When they were come into the midst of the sea, there arose
a great storm, which di.s))ersed all the ships in which the
treasures were : some were driven to NorM^ay, some to
Ireland, and others to Denmark, and all the spoils that
reached the latter country, being the table* and some of the
filirines and crosses, and many of the other treasures, they

brought to one of the king`s towns called , and laid it all

up in the church. But one night, through their carelessness
and drunkenness the church was burned, with all that was in
it. Thus was the monastery of Peterborough burned and
pillaged. May Ahnighty God have pity on it in his great
mercy ; and tlius the abl^at Turold came to Peterborough,
and the monks returnetl thither and performed Christian
worship in the church, wliicii had stood a full week without
biervice of any kind. When bishop Egelricf heard this, he
excommunicated all the men who had done this eviL There
was a great famine this year ; and this summer the fleet from
the Humber sailed into the Thames, and lay there two nights,
and it afterwards held on its course to Denmark. And earl
Baldwin died, and his son Arnulf succeeded him ; and earl
William I and the French king should have been his support :
but earl Robert came and slew his kinsman Arnulf, and the
earl ; put the king to flight, and slew many thousands of his

A. 1071. This year earl Edwin and earl Morcar fled, and
wandered through the woods and fields. Then earl Morcar
took ship and went to Ely ; and earl Edwin was slain
treacherously by his own men : and bishop Egelwine,§ and
Siward Barn, and many hundreds with them, came into Ely.
And when king William heard this, he called out a fleet and
army ; and he surrounded that land, and he made a bridge
and entered in, his fleet lying off the coast. Then all the
outlaws surrendered ; these were, bishop Egelwine and earl
Morcar, and all who were with them, excepting only
Hereward, and his followers whom he led off with great
valour. And the king seized their sliips, and arms, and much

Or cope : see the last notM- t Of Selsey.

/ i^Hi-Osbeme. $ Of Durham.


treasure ; and he disposed of the men as he would ; and he
Bent bishop Egelwine to Abingdon, where he died early ia
the winter.

A. 1072. This year king William led an army and a fleet
against Scotland, and he stationed the ships along the coast
and crossed the Tweed with his array; but he found nothing
to reward his pains. And king Malcolm came and treated
with king William, and delivered hostages, and became his
liege-man ; and king William returned home with his forces.
Bishop Egelric died this year ; he had been consecrated to
the archbishopric of York, of which he was unjustly
deprived, and the see of Durham was given to him ; this he
held as long as he chose, and then resigned it and went to
the monastery of Peterborough, and there he spent twelve
years. Then after king William had conquered England,
he removed Egelric from Peterborough, and sent him to
Westminster, and he died on the Ides of October, and he ia
buried in the abbey, in the aisle of St. Nicholas.

A. 1073. This year king William carried an army of
English and French over sea, and conquered the province of
Maine : and the English did great damage, for tiiey destroyed
the vineyards and burned the towns, and they laid waste that
province, the whole of which submitted to William ; and
they afterwards returned home to England.

A. 1074 This year king William went over sea to
Normandy ; and child Edgar came into Scotland from
Flanders on St. Grimbald`s mass-day. King Malcolm
and Margaret his sister received him there with much
pomp. Also Philip, king of France, sent him a letter
inviting him to come, and offering to give him the castle
of Montreuil, as a place to annoy his enemies from. After
this, king Malcolm and his sister Margaret gave great
presents and much treasure to him and his men, skins
adorned with purple, sable-skin, grey-skin and ermine-skin-
pelisses, mantles, gold and silver vessels, and escorted them
out of his dominions with much ceremony. But evil befell
them at sea ; for they had hardly left the shore, when such
rough weather came on, and the sea and wind drove them
with such force upon the land, that their ships went to pieces
and they saved their lives with much difficulty. They lost
Dearly all their riches and some of their men were taken ]ij

152 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. a.d. wi, 1075.

the French : but the boldest of them escaped back tO Scat-
land, some on foot and some mounted on wretched horsea.
King Malcolm advised Edgar to send to king William
beyond the sea, and request his friendship. Edgar did so,
and the king acceded to his request and sent to fetch him.
Again, king Malcolm and his sister made them handsome
presents, and escorted them with honour out of their
dominions. The sheriff of York met him at Durham, and
went all the way with him, ordering him to be provided with
meat and fodder at all the castles which they came to, until
they reached the king beyond the sea. There king WilHam
received him with much pomp, and he remained at the court,
enjoying such privileges as the king granted him.

A. 1075. This year king William gave the daughter of
William Fitz-Osberne in marriage to earl Ralph : the said
Ralph was a Welchman on his mother`s side, and his father
was an Englishman named Ralph, and born in Norfolk.
Then the king gave the earldom of Norfolk and Suffolk tc
his son, who brought his wife to Norwich, but

There was that bride-ale
The source of man`s bale.

For earl Roger and earl Waltheof were there, and bishops
and abbats, and they took counsel to depose the king of
England. And this was soon reported to the king then in
Normandy, and it was told him withal that earl Roger and
earl Ralph were the heads of the conspiracy, and that they
had brought over the Britons to their side, and had sent
eastward to Denmark for a fleet to assist them. And earl
Roger departed to his earldom in the west, and gathered his
people together in rebellion against the king, but he was
checked in his attempt. And earl Ralph also being in his
earldom would have marched forth with his people ; but the
garrisons of the castles of England, and the inhabitants of
the country came against him, and prevented his effecting
any thing, on which he took ship at Norwich : and his wife
remained in the castle, and held it till she had obtained terms,
and then she departed from England with all her adherents.
And after this the king came to England, and he took his
kinsman earl Roger and put him in prison ; and earl
Waltheof went over the sea and betrayed himself but ho


Mked forgiveness and offered a ransom. The king let him
off lightly until he came to England, when he had him
seized. And soon afterwards two hundred ships arrived
from Denmark, commanded by two chieftains, Canute the
son of Swejn, and earl Hacco, but they durst not risk a
battle with king William, but chose rather to go to York,
where they broke into St. Peter`s minster, and having taken
thence much treasure, went away again. They then crossed
over the sea to Flanders, but all who had been concerned in
the act perished, namely earl Hacco and many others with
him. And the lady Edgitha died at Winchester seven nights
before Christmas, and the king caused her to be brought to
Westminster with great pomp, and to be laid by her lord
king Edward. And the king was at W^estininster during
Christmas, and there all the Britons who had been at the
bridal feast at Norwich were brought to justice ; some were
blinded, and others banished. Thus were the traitors to
William subdued.

1076. Tliis year Sweyn king of Denmark died, and Harold
his son succeeded to the kingdom. And the king gave
Westminster to Vitalis, who had before been abbat of Bernay.*
Earl Waltheof was beheaded at Winchester on the mass-day
of St. Petronilla, f and his body was carried to Croyland,
where it now lies. And the king went over sea and led his
army into Brittany, and besieged the castle of Dol, and the
Britons defended it till the king of France came up, and then
WilKam departed, having lost both men and horses and
much treasure.

Or Bemej^es. A cell to the abbey of Fescarnp, in Normandy.

t "II. Kal. Jun. or the 31st of May. This notice of St. Petronilla,
whose name and existence seem scarcely to have been known to the Latin
historians, we owe exclusively to the valuable iVIS. c. t. b. iv. Yet if ever
female saint deserved to be commemorated as a conspicuous example of
early piety and Christian zeal, it must be Petronilla. She was no less a
person than the daughter of St. Peter himself; wlio, being solicited to
marry a nobleman at Rome of the name of Flaccus, and on her refusai
allowed three days to deliberate, after passing the whole time in fasting arv3
prayer, and receiving the sacrament at the hands of Nicomedes the prie^
expired on the third day ! This is no Romish lecjend of modem gro\vt*s,
for her name appears in the martyrology of Bede, and in the mos*
venerable records of primitive Christianity." — Ingram. And yet, tlw
reader, who shall receive even the existence of Petronilla in any other light
thaii as a fable, must possess a credulity which will enable him to realixo
ftii the impostures mnth which ecclesiastical history abounds.

151 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, a.d. lorr-ioso.

1077. This year a peace was made between the king of
France and William king of England, but it lasted only a
little while. And this year, one night before the assumption
of St. Mary, there was a more dreadful fire in London than
had ever happened since the town was built. And the moon
was eclipsed, three nights before candlemas : the same year
died Egelwig abbat of Evesham, on the fourteenth day
before the Kalends of March, which was the mass-day of St.
Juliana ; and Walter became bishop in his stead. Bishop
Herman also died on the tenth day before the Kalends of
March. He was bishop in Berkshire, Wiltshire, and Dorset-
shire. Also in this year king Malcolm won the mother of
Malslaythe and all his best men and all his treasure and his
oxen and himself hardly escaped .... There was also this
year a dry summer, and wild-fire burned many towns, and
many cities were ruined by it.

A. 1078.

A. 1079. This year king William`s son Robert, fled from
his father to his uncle Robert in Flanders, because liis father
would not let him govern his earldom in Normandy ; wliich
he himself, and with his consent Philip king of France, had
given to him. The best men of that land had sworn
allegiance to him and taken him for their lord. And the
same year king William fought against his son Robert
without the borders of Normandy near a castle called
Gerberoy, and there king WilHam was wounded, and tlie
horse on which he sat was killed, and he that brought him
another horse, namely, Tookie Wiggodson, was killed with a
dart, and his son William was also wounded, and many
men were slain, but Robert returned to Flanders. We will
not say more at present of the harm that he did to his

This year, between the two festivals of St. Mary, king
Malcolm invaded England with a large army, and laid waste
Northumberland as far as the Tyne ; and he slew many hun-
dred men, and carried home much money and treasure and
many prisoners.

A. 1080. This year Walcher bishop of Durham was slain
at a gemot, and a hundred French and Flemings with him :
Walcher himself was born in Lorraine. The Northumbrianj
j,^rpetrated this in the month of May.


A. 108L This year the king led an army into Wales, ana
there he set free many hundred persons.

A. 1082. This year the king arrested bishop Odo. AihI
there was a great famine this year.

A. 1083. This year a quarrel arose in Glastonbury be-
tween the abbat Thurstan and his monks. It was first
caused by the abbat`s unwise conduct, in that he treated his
monks ill in many respects, but the monks were lovingly-
minded towards him, and begged him to govern them in
right and in kindness, and tliey would be faithful and obe-
dient to him. But the abbat would none of this, and
wrought them evil, and tlireatened worse. One day the
abbat went into the chapter-house, and spoke against the
monks, and would have taught them amiss ;* and lie sent
for laymen, and they came in all armed upon the monks in
the chapter-house. Then the monks were greatly terrified
and knew not what to do, and some ran for refuge into the
church and locked the doors from within ; but the others
followed them, and would have dragged them forth when
they durst not come out. Rueful things happened there on
that day, for the French broke into the choir and threw
darts towards the altar Avhere the monks were collected,
and some of their servants went upon the upper floor f and
shot down arrows towards the chancel, so that many arrows
stuck in the crucifix which stood above the altar, and the
wretched monks lay around the altar, and some crept under
it, and they called earnestly upon God and besought his
mercy, since they could obtain no mercy at the hands of
men. What can we say, but that they shot without ceasing,
and others broke down the doors, and rushed in, and they
slew some of the monks and wounded many, so that the
blood ran down from the altar on the steps, and from the
steps to the floor ? Three were smitten to death and eigh-
"^een wounded. And the same year Matilda the wife of king
William died on the day after the feast of All Saints. And
the same year after Christmas the king caused a great and
heavy tax to be raised throughout England, even seventy-
two pence upon every hide of land.

He wished to substitute the chant of William of Feschamp for that
called the Gregorian.

+ Probably alon.n; the open galleries in the upper story of the choii,
onunonly called the triforium.

156 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, a.d. los*. 1035.

A. 1084. This year Wulfwold abbat of Chertsey iied on
the 1 3th day before the Kalends of May.

A. 1085. This year men said and reported as certain, that
Canute king of Denmark, the son of king Sweyn, was coming
hither, and that he designed to conquer this land, with the
assistance of Robert earl of Flanders, whose daughter he
had married. When king William, who was then in Nor-
mandy, heard tliis, for England and Normandy were both
his, he hastened hither with a larger army of horse and foot,
from France and Brittany, than had ever arrived in this
land, so that men wondered how the country could feed
them all. But the king billeted the soldiers upon his sub-
jects throughout the nation, and they provided for them,
every man according to the land that he possessed. And
the people suffered much distress this year: and the king
caused the country near the sea to be laid waste, that if his
enemies landed they might the less readily find any plunder.
Afterwards when he had received certain information that
they had been stopped,* and that they would not be able to
proceed in this enterprise, he let part of his forces return to
their own homes, and he kept part in this laud through the
winter. At midwinter the king was at Gloucester with liis
witan ; and he held his court there five days ; and afterwards
the archbishop and clergy held a synod during three days ;
and Maurice was there chosen to the bishopric of London,
William to that of Norfolk, and Robert to that of Cheshire ;
t,hey were all clerks of the king. After this the king had a
great consultation, and spoke very deeply with his witan
concerning this land, how it was held and what were its
tenantry. He then sent his men over all England, into
every shire, and caused them to ascertain how many hun-
dred hides of land it contained, and what lands the king
possessed therein, what cattle there were in the several
counties, and how much revenue he ought to receive yearly
from each. He also caused them to write down how much
land belonged to his archbishops, to his bishops, his abbats,
and his earls, and, that I may be brief, what property every

Because there was a mutiny in the Danish fleet; which was earned
to such a height, that the king, after his return to Denmark, was slain by
his own soldiers. Vide Antiq. Celto^cand. p. 22li. See also our Chron*

k;l<^ A.D. 1087. — INGRAM.

A.D. 1088,1087. THE xiNGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 157

inhabitant of all England possessed in land or in cattle, and
how much money this was wortli. So very narrowly did l;e
cause the survey to be made, that there was not a single
hide nor a rood of land, nor — it is shameful to relate that
which he thought no shame to do — was there an ox, or a
cow, or a pig passed by, and that was not set down in the
accounts,* and then all these writings were brought to him.

A. 1086. This year the king wore his crown and held his
court at Winchester at Easter, and he so journeyed forward
that he was at Westminster during Pentecost, and there he
dubbed his son Henry a knight. And afterwards he tra-
velled about, so that he came to Salisbury at Lammas ; and
liis witiin, and all the land-holders of substance in England,
whose vassals soever they were, repaired to him there, and
they all submitted to him, and became his men, and swore
oaths of allegiance, that they would be faithful to him
against all others. Thence he proceeded to the Lsle of
Wight because he was to cross over to Normandy ; and
this he afterwards did; but first, according to his custom,
he extorted immense sums from his subjects, upon every
pretext he could find, whether just or otherwise. Then he
went over to Normandy, and king Edward`s kinsman Edgar
ethehng left liim, because he received no great honour from
him : may Almighty God give him glory hereafter. And
the etheling`s sister Christina went into the monastery of
Komsey, and took the holy veil. And the same was a very
heavy year, and very disastrous and sorrowful ; for there was
a pestilence among the cattle, and the corn and fruits were
checked; and the weather was worse than may easily be
conceived: so violent was the thunder and lightning, that
numy persons were killed : and things ever grew worse and
worse with the people. May Almighty God mend them,
when such is his will I

^ A. 1087. The year 1087 after the birth of Christ our
Saviour, and the one and twentieth of king William`s reign,
during wiiich he governed and disposed of the realm of Eng-
land even as God permitted him, was a very grievous time
of scarcity in this land. There was also so much illness,

This is the famous Doomsday Book, or Rotulus `A^intonije, ctilled also
Liber Wintonice. At the end of it is the date, Annx millesimo octoyesimo
iSixio ab incarnulione Dei, vigesimo vero reyni Willelmi, ^c.


that almost every other man was afflicted with the worst
of erils, that is, a fever ; and this so severe, that many died
of it. And afterwards, from the badness of the weathei
which we have mentioned before, there was so great a famine
throughout England, that many hundreds died of hunger.
Oh, how disastrous, how rupful were those times ! when
the wretched people were brouglit to the point of death by
the fever, then the cruel famine came on and finished them.
Who would not deplore such times, or who is so hard-hearted
that he will not weep for so much misery ? But such things
are, on account of the sins of the people, and because they
will not love God and righteousness. Even so was it in
those days ; there was little righteousness in this land
amongst any, excepting the monks alone, who fsired well.
The king and the chief men loved much, and over much,
to amass gold and silver, and cared not how sinfully it was
gotten, so that it came into their hands. The king sold out
his lands as dear as dearest he might, and then some other
man came and bid more than the first had given, and the
king granted them to him who offered tlie larger sum ; then
came a third and bid yet more, and the king made over the
lands to him who offered most of all ; and he cared not how
iniquitously his sheriffs extorted money from the miserable
people, nor how many unlawful things they did. And the
more men spake of rightful laws, the more lawlessly did
they act. They raised oppressive taxes, and so many were
their unjust deeds, it were hard to number them. And the
same year, before harvest, St. Paul`s holy minster, the resi-
dence of the bishops of London, w as burnt, together with
many otlier monasteries, and the greater and handsomer part
of the whole city. At the same time likewise almost all the
principal towns of England were burnt down. Oh, how sad
and deplorable was this year, which brought forth so many
calamities I

The same year also, before the issumption of St. Mary,
king William marched with an army out of Normandy into
France, and made war upon his own lord king Philip, and
slew a great number of his people, and burned the town of
Mante, and all the holy monasteries in it, and two holy men
who served God as anchorites were burned there. This
done king William returned into Normandy. Rueful deeda


he did, and ruefully he suffered. Wherefore ruefully ? Hij
fell sick and became grievously ill. What can I say ? The
sharpness of death, that spareth neither rich nor poor, seized
upon him. He died in Normandy the day after the nativity
of St. Mary, and he was buried in Caen, at St. Stephen`s
monastery, which he had built and had richly endowed.
Oh, how false, how unstable, is the good of this world!
He, who had been a powerful king and the lord of many
territories, possessed not then, of all his lands, more than seven
feet of ground ; and he, who was erewhile adorned with gold
and with gems, lay then covered with mould. He left three
sons : Eobert the eldest was earl of Normandy after him ;
the second, named William, wore the crown of England after
his father`s death ; and his third son was Henry, to whom he
bequeathed immense treasures. ,^

If any would know what manner of man king William
was, the glory that he obtained, and of how many lands he
was lord ; then Avill we describe him as we have known him,
we, who have looked upon him, and who once lived in his
court.* This king William, of whom we are speaking, was
a very wise and a great man, and more honoured and more
powerful than any of his predecessors. He was mild tQ
those good men who loved God, but severe beyond mea-
sure towards those who withstood his will. He founded a
noble monastery on the spot where God permitted him to
conquer England, and he established monks in it, and he
made it very rich. In his days the great monastery at Can-
terbury was built, and many others also throughout Eng-
land; moreover this land was filled with monks who lived
after the rule of St. Benedict; and such was the state of
religion in his days that all that would, might observe that
which was prescribed by their respective orders. King
William was also held in much revei`ence : he wore his
crown three times every year when he was in England : at
Easter he wore it at Winchester, at Pentecost at "\Vestmin
ster, and at Christmas at Gloucester. And at these times,
all the men of England were with him, archbishops, bishops,
abbats, and earls, thanes, and knights. So also, was he a very
Btem and a wrathful man, so that none durst do anything

From this we learn that this part of the Chronicle was written by a
oontemporary and eye-witness of the facts which he relates.


against his will, and lie kept in prison those earls who acted
against his pleasure. He removed bishops from their sees,
and abbats from their offices, and he imprisoned thanes, and
at length he spared not his own brother Odo. This Odo
"vas a very powerful bishop in Normandy, his see was that
of Bayeux, and he was foremost to serve the king. He
had an earldom in England, and when William was in
Noi`mandy he was the first man in this country, and him
did he cast into prison. Amongst other things the good
order that William established is not to be forgotten ; it
was such that any man, who was himself aught, might tra-
vel over the kingdom with a bosom-full of gold unmolested ;
and no man durst kill another, however great the injury lie
might have received from him. He reigned over England,
and being sharp-sighted to his own interest, he surveyed the
kingdom so thoroughly that there was not a single hide of
land throughout the whole, of which he knew not the pos-
sessor, and how much it was worth, and this he afterwards
entered in his register.* The land of the Britons f was
under his sway, and he built castles therein; moreover he
had full dominion over the Isle of Man (Anglesey) : Scot-
land also was subject to him from his great strength ; tlie
land of Normandy was his by inheritance, and he possessed
the earldom of Maine ; and had he lived two years longer
he would hive subdued Ireland by his prowess, and that
without a battle. Truly there was much trouble in these
times, and very great distress ; he caused castles to be built,
and oppressed the poor. The king was also of great stern-
ness, and he took from his subjects many marks of gold, and
many hundred pounds of silver, and this, either with or
without right, and with little need. He was given to
avarice, and greedily loved gain. He made large forests
for the deer, and enacted laws therewith, so that whoever
killed a hart or a hind should be blinded. As he forbade
killing the deer, so also the boars; and he loved the tall
stags as if he were their father. He also appointed con-

* This is certainly an evident allusion to the compilation of Doomsday
Book already described, a.d. 1085, as Gibson o`jserves; and it is equally
cli-;ir to me, that the conposition of this jhrt of the Chronicle is by a
lilToroiit hand. — iNoaAtf*

T Waiea.


cerniiig the hares, tliat they should go free. Tlie rich com-
phiiiied and tke poor murmured, but he was so sturdy that
he recked nought of them ; they must will all tliat the king
willed, if they would live ; or would keep their lands ; or
would hold their possessions ; or would be maintained in
their rights. Alas ! that any man should so exalt himself,
and carry himself in his pride over all ! May Almighty
God show mercy to his soul, and grant him the forgive-
ness of his sins ! We have written concerning him these
things, both good and bad, that virtuous men might follow
after the good, and wholly avoid the evil, and might go in
the way that leadeth to the kingdom of heaven.

We may write of many events which happened during this
year. In Denmark, the Danes who were formerly accounted
the most loyal of people, turned to the greatest possible per-
fidy and treachery`, for they chose king Canute, and submit-
ted to him, and swore oaths of allegiance, and afterwards
they shamefully murdered him in a church.* It also came
to pass in Spain, that the heathen men went forth, and made
war upon the Christians, and brought great part of the
country into subjection to themselves. But the Christian
king, w^hose name was Alphonso, sent to all countries and
begged assistance. And allies flocked to him from every
Christian land, and they went forth, and slew or drove away
all the heathens, and they won their land again by the help
of God. The same year also many great men died in this
land : Stigand bishop of Chichester, and the abbat of St.
Augustine`s, and the abbats of Bath and of Pershore, and the
lord of them all William king of England, concerning whom
we have spoken above.

After his death, his son William, of the same name with
his father, took to himself the government, and was conse-
crated king in Westminster by archbishop Lanfranc three
days before Michaelmas : and all the men of England acknow-
ledged him, and swore oaths of allegiance to him. This
done, the king went to Winchester and examined the
treasury, and the hoards which his father had amassed ; gold
and silver, vessels of plate, palls, gems, and many other valu-

A church at Odensee, dedicated to St, Alban, whose relic« had been
Drought from England by this Canute.



ables that are hard to be numbered. The king diJ as his
father before he died commanded hira ; he distributed trea-
sures amongst all the monasteries of England, for the sake
of his father`s soul : to some he gave ten marks of gold, and
to others six, and sixty pennies to every country church, and
a hundred pounds of money was sent into every county to
be divided among the poor for his soul`s sake. And before
he died he had also desired that all who had been imprisoned
during his reign should be released. And the king was at
London during midwinter.

A. 1088. Tliis year the land was much disturbed, and
filled with treason, so that the principal Frenchmen here
would have betrayed their lord the king, and have had his
brother Robert instead, who was earl of Normandy. Bishop
Odo was the chief man in the conspiracy, together with
bishop Gosfrith, and William bishop of Durham. The king
esteemed the bishop so highly, that the affairs of all England
were directed after his counsel, and according to his pleasure,
but the bishop purposed to do by him as Judas Iscariot did
by our Lord. And earl Roger was concerned in this con-
spiracy, and many others with him> all Frenchmen. This
plot was concerted during Lent ; and as soon as Easter came
they marched forth, and plundered, and burned, and laid
waste the lands of the crown ; and they ruined the estates of
those who remained firm in their allegiance. And each of
the head conspirators went to his own castle, and manned
and victualled it, as best he might. Bishop Gosfrith and
Robert the peace-breaker went to Bristol, and having plun-
dered the town, they brought the spoils into the castie ; and
afterwards they sallied forth and plundered Bath, and all the
surrounding country, and they laid waste all the lordship
of Berkeley. And the chief men of Hereford and all that
county, and the men of Shropshire, with many from Wales,
entered Worcestershire, and went on plundering and burning,
till they approached the county town, and they were resolved
to burn this also, and to plunder the cathedral, and to seize
the king`s castle for themselves. The worthy bishop Wul-
stan seeing this, was much distressed in mind, because the
castle was committed to his keeping. Nevertheless his re*
tainers, few as they were, marched out, and through the
mercy of God, and the good desert of the bishop, they slew


or tcok captive tivo hundred men, and put all the rest \o
flight. The bishop of Durham did as much harm as he
could in all the northern parts : one of the conspirators
named Roger, threw himself into Norwich castle, and spread
devastation throughout that country : Hugo also was in no
respect less formidable to Leicestershire and Northampton.
Bishop Odo, with whom these commotions originated, de-
parted to his earldom of Kent, which he ravaged, and he
wholly laid waste the lands of the king and the archbishop,
and brought all the plunder into his castle at Rochester.
When the king had heard all this, and with what treason
they were acting towards him, he was greatly disturbed in
mind ; and he sent for the English, and laid his necessities
before them, and entreated their assistance. He promised
them better laws than had ever been in this land, and forbade
all unjust taxes, and guaranteed to his subjects their woods
and hunting. But these concessions were soon done away.
Howbeit the English came to tlie aid of their lord the king,
and they then marched towards Rochester, desiring to seise
bishop Odo, for they thought that if they had him who was
the head of the conspiracy in their power, they might with
greater ease subdue the others. Then they came to Tun-
bridge castle, in wliicli were the knights of bishop Odo and
many others, who resolved to hold out against William. But
the English came on, and stormed the castle, and the garrison
capitulated. They then proceeded towards Rochester be-
lieving that the bishop was there : but the king was told
that he was departed to his castle at Pevensey, and the king
and his troops went after him, and he besieged that castle
full six weeks with a very large army.

In the meantime Robert earl of Normandy, the king`s
brother, gathered together a great multitude, and thought
that he should win England with the aid of the disaffected of
this country. And he sent some of his troops to this land,
intending to follow them himself. But the Enghsh who
guarded the sea attacked these men, and slew and drowned
more than any one can number. At length provisions be-
came scarce in the castle, on which the insurgents prayed for
a truce and surrendered the place to the king, and the bishop
took an oath that he would depart from England, and never
rfctum unless the king sent for him, and that he vrould ais»

M 2

164 THE ANGLO-SAXO^^ CHRONICLE, a.d. ios9. looo.

g^ve up Rochester castle. After tliis the bishop proceeded
thither that he might deliver up that fortress, aud the king
sent his men with him. but then the soldiers who were in the
castle arose, and seized the bishop, and the king`s men, whom
they put into confinement. There were very good knights
in this castle : Eustace the younger, the three sons of earl
Ivoger, and all the best born of this land, and of Normandy.
When tlie king knew this, he set forth with all the troops
theft with him, and he sent over all England and commanded
tliat every man of mark, French or English, from town and
from country, should come and join him. Many were those
who flocked to him, and he marched to Rochester and be-
sieged the castle till the garrison capitulated. Bishop Odo
and those who were with him departed over sea, and thus the
bishop lost the station he held in this land. The king after-
wards sent an army to Durham, and besiwged the castle, and
the bishop capitulated, and surrendered it, and he gave up
his bishopric and went to Normandy. Many Frenchmen
^Iso left their lands, and went over sea, and the king gave
tlieir estates to those who had held fast to him.

A. 1089. This year the venerable father and patron of
monks, archbishop Lanfranc, departed tliis life, but we trust
that he has entered into the kingdom of heaven. There
was also a great earthquake throughout England on the 3rd
day before the Ides of August.* And it was a very late
year both as to the corn, and fruits of all kind, so that many
pien reaped their corn about Martinmas, and even later.

A. 1090. Things being in the state we have describcil,
as regarding the king, liis brother, and his people, William
considered how he might take the surest vengeance on his
brother Robert, harass him most, and win Normandy from
him. To this end, he gained the castle and port of St. Valeiy
by stratagem or bribery, and also Albemarle castle, and he
j^laced his knights in them, and they did much harm, ravag-
ing and burning the country. After this he got possession
of more castles in that land, and in these also he stationed his
ki lights. When Robert earl of Normandy found that his
sworn liege-men revolted and gave up their castles to his
frrcat injury, he sent to his lord Philip king of France, v/`Ijo

The 11th of August.


came into Norniindy with a large army; and tlie king and
the earl with an innumerable force besieged a castle defended
by the king of England`s soldiers : but king William of Eng-
land sent to Philip king of France, and he, for love of Wil-
liam or for his great bribes, deserted his vassal earl Robert
and his land, and returned to France, leaving things as they
were. During all these transactions, England was greatly
oppressed by unlawful taxes, and many other grievances.

A. 1091. This year king William held his court at Westmin-
ster at Christmas, and the following Candlemas he departed
from England to Normandy, bent on his brother`s ruin : but
whilst he was in that country, peace was made between them,
on condition that the earl should give up Feschamp, the earldom
of Eu, and Cherbourg, to William, and withal that the king`s
men should be unmolested in those castles of which they had
possessed themselves in the earl`s despite. And the king, on
his side, promised to reduce to their obedience the many
castles conquered by their father, which had since revolted
from the earl, and also to establish him in the possession of
all their father`s territories abroad, excepting those places
which the earl had then given up to the king. Moreover all
who had lost their lands in England on account of the earl
were to regain them by this treaty, and the earl also was to
receive certain estates in England then specified. It was
also agreed that if the earl died leaving no legitimate son the
king should be heir of all Normandy, and in like manner if
the king died, that the earl should be heir of all England.
Twelve of the chief men on the part of the king, and twelve
on that of the earl, guaranteed this treaty by oath ; yet it was
observed but a short time. During this peace Edgar etheling
v/as dispossessed of those lands which the earl had granted him,
and he departed and went from Normandy into Scotland, to
the king his brother-in-law, and his sister. Whilst king Wil-
liam was out of England, Malcolm king of Scotland invaded
this country, and ravaged great part of it, till the good men to
whom the keeping of the land was entrusted, sent their troops
against liim and drove him back. When king William heard
this in Normandy, he hastened to return, and he came to Eng-
land and his brother earl Robert with him. And they called
out a fleet and army, but almost all the ships were lost, a few
days before jMichaelmas. ere they reached Sccuand. And


1092, 1003

.he king and his brother proceeded with the army : and

when king Malcolm heard that thej sought to attack him, he
marched with his array out of Scotland into Lothian in
England, and remained there. And when king William
approached, earl Robert and Edgar etheling mediated a
peace between the kings, on condition that king Malcolm
should repair to our king, and become his vassal, and in all
tlie like subjection as to his father before him ; and this he
confirmed by oath. And king William promised him all the
lands and possessions that he held under his father. By this
peace Edgar etheling was reconciled to the king. And the
kings separated in great friendship, but this lasted during a
short time only. Earl Robert abode here with the king till
Christmas drew near, and in this time he found little good
fuith as to the fullilment of the treaty, and two days before
the feast he took ship from the Isle of Wight and sailed to
Normandy, and Edgar etheling with liim.

A. 1092. This year king William went northward to
Carlisle with a large army, and he repaired the city, and
built the castle. And he drove out Doltin, who had before
governed that country ; and having placed a garrison in the
castle, he returned into the south, and sent a great number
of rustic Englishmen thither, with their wives and cattle,
that they might settle there and cultivate the land.

A. 1093. This year, in Lent, king William was very sick
at Gloucester, insomuch that he was universally reported to
be dead : and he made many good promises in his illness ;
that he would lead his future life in righteousness — that the
churches of God he would guard and free — and never mort
sell them for money — and that he would have all just laws
in his kingdom. And he gave the archbishopric of Canter-
bury, which he had hitherto kept in his own hands, to
Anselm, who was before this abbat of Bee, and the bishopric
of Lincoln to his chancellor Robt vt ; and he granted lands to
many monasteries, but afterwards, when recovered, he took
tliem back, and he neglected all the good laws that he had
promised us. After this the king of Scotland sent desirinj
that the stipulated conditions might be performed ; and kinj
William summoned him to Gloucester, and sent hostages to
liim in Scotland, and afterwards Edgar etheling and other.?
r^ict him, and brou;;ht him with much lionoiir to the court*


But when he came there, he could neither obtain a confer
ence with our king nor tlie performance of tlie condition?
formerly promised him, and therefore they departed in great
Cimiity: and king Malcolm returned home to Scotland, and
as soon as he came thither, he assembled his troops and
invaded England, ravaging the country with more fury than
behoved him : and Robert, earl of Northumberland, with his
men, lay in wait for him, and slew him unawares. He was
killed by Morasl of Bambrough, the earl`s steward, and king
Malcolm`s own godfather:* his son Edward, who, had he
lived, would have been king after his father, was killed with
him. When the good queen Margaret heard that her most
beloved lord, and her son, were thus cut off, she was grieved
in spirit unto death, and she went with her priest into the
church, and having gone through all befitting rites, she
prayed of God that she might give up the ghost. And then
the Scots chose f Dufenal, the brother of Malcolm, for their
king, and drove out all the English who had been with king
Malcolm. When Duncan, the son of king Malcolm, heard
all this, for he was in king William`s court, and had re-
mained here from the time that his father gave him as an
hostage to our king`s father, he came to the king, and did
such homage as the king required ; and thus, with his con-
sent, he departed for Scotland, with the aid that he could
muster, both English and French, and he deprived his kins-
man Dufenal of the throne, and was received as king. But
then some of the Scotch again gathered themselves together,
and slew nearly all his men, and he himself escaped with
few others. They were afterwards reconciled on this con-
dition, that Duncan should never more bring English or
Frenchmen into that country.

A. 1094. This year, at Christmas, king William held hia

* Ingram translates the original " godsib" baptismal friend, and adds
the following note, " literally a gossip ; but such are the `changes which
words undergo in their meaning as well as in their form, that a title of
lionour, formerly implying a spiritual relationship in God, is now applied
only to those whose conversation resembles the contemptible tittle-tattle of
a christening: — Gibson translates it a ` susceptor,` i. e. an undertaker."

+ " From this expression it is evident, that though preference wa«
naturally and properly given to hereditary claims, the monarchy of S.`x>t-
land, as well as oi Kugland, was in principle elective. The doctriiie of
hereditaryj of diviu**- ai indefeaaiblw ru^t. jg Qf modem grovth.** — Imujumu


court at Gloucester ; and there came messengers to him out
of Normandy, from his brother Robert, and they said that
his brother renounced all peace and compact if the king
would not perform all that they had stipulated in the treaty ;
moreover they called him perjured and faithless unless he
would perform the conditions, or would go to the place
where the treaty had been concluded and sworn to, and
there clear himself Then at Candlemas the king went to
Hastings, and whilst he waited there for a fair wind, he
caused the monastery on the field of battle* to be conse-
crated ; and he took the staff from Herbert Losange, "j" bishop
of Thetford. — After this, in the middle of Lent, he went
over sea to Normandy. When he came thither he and liis
brother, earl Robert, agreed that they would meet in peace,
and they did so, to the end that they might be reconciled,
liut afterwards, when they met, attended by the same men
who had brought about the treaty, and had sworn to see it
executed, these charged all the breach of faith upon the
king ; he would not allow this, neither would he observe the
treaty, on which they separated in great enmity. And the
king then seized the castle of Bures, and took the earl`s men
who were in it, and he sent some of them over to this coun-
try. And on the other hand the earl, with the assistance of
the king of France, took the castle of Ai`gences, in wliich he
seized Roger the Poitou and seven hundred of the king`s
soldiers ; and he afterwards took the castle of Hulme ; and
frequently did each burn the towns and take captive the
i)eople of his rival. Then the king sent hither and ordered
out 20,000 Englishmen to aid him in Normandy, but when
they reached the sea they were desired to return, and to give
to the king`s treasury the money that they had received;
this was half a pound for each man, and they did so. And
in Normandy, after this, the earl, with the king of France,
and all the troops that they could collect, marched towards
Eu, where king William then was, purposing to besiege him
therein, and thus they proceeded until they came to Lune-

Battle Abbey.

f Commonly culled Herbert de Losinga. His letters are of much his-
torical interest : they were supposed to be lost, »«ntil they were recenily
ci-i-`-rovered by Robert Anstruther in tlie Brussels lihraiy, aiid putUalied
8yo, iJruxellLj, apud Vandale, et Londini apud D. NutU


Tille, and thei-e the king of France furned off through
treachery, and on this the whole army dispersed. Li the
meantime king William sent for his brother Henry, who
was in the castle of Damfront, and because he could not pass
through Normandy in security, he sent ships for him, with
Hugo, earl of Chester. And when they should have made
I`or Eu, where the king was, they directed their course in-
stead to England, and landed at Hampton* on the eve of
All Saints` day; and they then remained ija this country,
and were in London at Christmas.

The same year also the Welsh gathered themselves to-
gether, and made war upon the French in Wales, or in the
neighbouring parts, where they had been before deprived of
their lands, and they stormed many fortresses and castles,
and slew tlie men, and afterwards their numbers increased
so much, that they divided themselves into many bodies;
Hugo, earl of Shropshire, fought with one division and put
it to flight, but nevertheless the others abstained not, during
the whole year, from committing every outrage in their
l)ower. This year also the Scots conspired against their
king Duncan, and slew him, and they afterwards took his
uncle Dufenal a second time for their king ; through whose
instructions and instigation Duncan had been betrayed to
his death.

A. 1095. This year king William was at Whitsand during
the first four days of Christmas, and after the fourth day he
set sail and landed at Dover. And the king`s brother Henry
remained in this country till Lent, and then he went over
sea to Normandy, with much treasure to be employed in the
king`s service against their brother, earl Robert : and he
gained ground upon the earl continually, and did much damage
to his lands and subjects. Then at Easter tlie king held his
court at Winchester, and Robert earl of Northumberland
would not repair thither ; therefore the king`s anger was
greatly stirred up against him, and he sent to him, and
sternly commanded that if he would remain in peace he
should come to his court at Pentecost. This year Eastei
fell on the 8th before the Kalends of April, and after EAster^

Now called Southampton, to distinguish it from Northampton; bul
the common people, in both neighbourhoods, geneniUy sav " H&aapton`* U
thiaday. — Ingram.


on ttie night of the feast of St. Ambrose, the 2nd before the
Nones of April, there was seen all over the country a great
multitude of stars falling from heaven during nearly the whole
of the night, not one or two at a time, but so thickly that no
man might number them. After this, at Pentecost, the king
was at Windsor, and all his witan with him, excepting the
earl of Northumberland, for the king would neither give
hostages nor pledge liis troth that he should come and go in
security. On this the king called out an army, and marched
against the earl into Northumberland, and as soon as he
came thither he seized almost all the chief men of the earl`s
court in a certain fortress, and he put them in confinement.
And he besieged Tinmouth castle until he took it, and there
he seized the earl`s brother, and all who were with him ;
thence he proceeded to Bambrough, and there he besieged
tlie earl ; and when the king found that he could not reduce
him, he caused a castle to be built over against Bambrough,
and called it in his speech, Malveisin, which is in English,
"the evil neighbour," and he garrisoned it strongly, and
afterwards he departed southward. Then one night, soon
after the king`s return into the south, the earl went out o£`
Bambrough towards Tinmouth : but those in the new castle,
being aware of his design, pursued and attacked him, and
they wounded him, and afterwards took him prisoner, and some
of his followers were slain, and some taken alive. Li the
meantime the king was told that the Welsh had stormed a
certain castle in Wales, called Montgomery, and had slain
earl Hugo`s men who defended it ; on this he commanded
another army to be called out in haste, and after Michaelmas
he proceeded into Wales. He divided his forces, and his
troops made their way through all parts of the country, and
met at Snow don, on All Saints` day. But the Welsh ever
fled before him to the mountains and moors, so that no man
could get near them, and the king at length returned home-
wards, because he could do no more there that winter. \MieD
the king came back, he commanded his people to take Robert
earl of Northumberland, and lead him to Bambrough, and to
put out both his eyes, unless the besieged would surrende
the castle, which was defended by his wife, and his steward
Morel, who was also his kinsman. On this, the castle wa.-.
given up, and Morel was received at William`s court ; and


through hira many were discovered, both cleri^y jDd laity,
who had aided this rebellion with their counsel. Then the
king ordered some of them to be imprisoned before Clirist`
mas, and he straightly commanded throughout the kingdom,
that all wlio held lands of him should be at his court, on
that festival, as they would retain his protection. And the
king had earl Robert brought to Windsor, and confined there
in the castle. This year also, a little before Easter, the
pope`s legate came to England ; this was Walter, bishop of
Albano, a man of a very virtuous life, and at Pentecost he
presented archbishop Anselm with his pall from pope Urban,
and he received it at his metropolitan city of Canterbury.
And bishop Walter remained h^re great part of this year
and on his return the Romescot,* which had not been paid for
many years before, was sent with him. This year also the
weather was very unseasonable, so that the fruits of the
earth were much injured over all the country.

A. 1096. This year king William held his Christmas
court at Windsor; and William bishop of Durham died
there on New Year`s day. And the king and all his witan
were at Salisbury on the octaves of the Epiphany. There
Geoifry Bainard accused William of Eu, the king`s relation,
saj-ing that he had been concerned in the conspiracy against
the king, and for this cause he fought with him and over-
came him in single combat, and after he was vanquished the
king commanded that his eyes should be put out ; and the
king also caused his steward named William, who was his
aunt`s son, to be hanged on the gallows. Then also Eoda
earl of Champagne, the king`s uncle, and many others, were
deprived of their lands, and some were brought to London,
and there executed. At Easter, this year, there was a very
great stir in this country and in many others also, through
Urban, who was called pope, though he was not in posses-
sion of the see of Rome ; and an innumerable multitude of
men, with their wives and children, departed to go and con-
quer the heathen nations. The king and his brother, earl
Robert, were reconciled in consequence of this expedition, so
that the king went over sea, and received from the earl all
Normandy for a sum of money, according tc contract. Aiid
thereupon the earl departed, and with him went the earls of
* Commonly called Peter`s pence.


Flanders and of Boulogne, and many other headmen.* And
earl Robert and those who accompanied him abode in Apulia
that winter. But of those who went by Hungary, many thou-
sands perished miserably there, or on the road, and many, rueful
and hunger-bitten, toiled homewards against winter. These
were very hard times to all the English, as well because of
tlie manifold taxes, as of the very grievous famine which sorely
afflicted the land. This year also the nobles who had charge
of this country frequently sent forth armies into Wales, and
thus they greatly oppressed many, and for no purpose, but
with much loss of men and of money.

A. 1097. This year king William was in Normandy at
Christmas, and beft^re Easter he sailed for this land, intend-
ing to hold liis court at Winchester, but he was kept at sea
by bad weather till Easter eve ; and Arundel was the first
place to which he came, therefore he held his court at Wind-
sor. After this, he marched into Wales with a large army,
and his troops penetrated far into the country by means of
some Welshmen who had come over to him, and were his guides.
And William remained there from Midsummer till near Au-
gust, to his great loss of men and horses and many other things.

When the Welsh had revolted from the king, they chose
several leaders from among themselves, one of these was
named Cadwgan, he was the most powerful of them all, and
w}is the son of king Griffin`s brother. The king, seeing
that he could not effect his purpose, returned into England,
and he forthwith caused castles to be built on the marches.
Then at ^Michaelmas, on the 4th before the Nones of Octo-
ber, an uncommon star appeared shining in the evening, and
soon going down : it was seen in tlie south-west, and the
light which streamed from it seemed very long, shining to-
wards the south-east ; and it appeared after this manner
nearly all the week. Many allowed that it was a comet.
Soon after this, Anselm archbishop of Canterbury obtained
permission from the king, though against his inclination, to
leave this country and go over sea, because it seemed to hiiu
that in this nation little was done according to right, or after
his desires. And at Martinmas the king went over sea to

* " Headmen or chiefs." The term is still retained with a slight varia-
tion in the north of Europe, as the Uelman I`latotf, of celcLiated momury.`

A.©. 1007 1099. THE ANGLO-SxiXON CHRONICLE. 173

Normandy ; but whilst he waited for a fnir mnd, his train
did ius much injury in the county in which they were de-
tiiined, as any prince`s retinue, or even an army could have
committed in a peaceable land.

This year was in all respects a very heavy time, and the
weather was singularly bad at the seasons wlien men should
till their lands and gather in the harvest ; and the people
had nevertheless no respite from unjust taxes. Many shires,
moreover, which are bound to duty in works at London,
were greatly oppressed in making the wall around the tower,
in repairing the bridge which had been almost washed away,
and in building the king`s hall at Westminster. These
hardships fell upon many. This year also, at Michaelmas,
Edgar etheling, with the king`s aid, led an army into Scot-
land, and won that country by hard fighting, and drove out
the king Dufnal, and established his kinsman Edgar the
son of king Malcolm and queen Margaret, as king in fealty
to William, and then he returned into England.

A. 1098. This year king AYilliam was in Normandy at
Christmas ; and Walkelin bishop €f Winchester, and Bald-
win abbat of St. Edmund`s, both died during this festival.
Tliis year also died Turold abbat of Peterborough. More-
over in the summer of tliis year a spring of blood burst out
at Finchamstead, in Berksliire, according to the declaration
of many men of credit, who said that tliey had seen it. And
earl Hugo was slain in Anglesey by foreign pirates ; his
brother Kobert succeeded him, having obtained this of the
king. Before Michaelmas-day the heaven appeared as it
were on fire, almost all the night. Tliis was a year of much
distress, caused by the manifold oppressive taxes ; nearly all
the crops in the marsh lands failed also from the great rains,
which ceased not the whole year.

A. 1099. This year king WiUiam was in Normandy at
"Ihristmas ; and at Easter he came hither ; and at Penteco^st
^ held his court for the first time in the new building at
^"estminster, and there he gave the bishopric of Durham to
ms chaplain Panulf, who had long been the chief manager
jjid director of all the king`s councils held in England. And
i^on afterwards William went over sea, and drove earl Elias
ir(>m Maine, and brought thai;- province into subjection ; and
at jVIichaelmas he returned U this land. This year also, on


St. Martin`s day, there was `so very high a tide, and the
damage was so great in consequence, that men remembered
not the like to have ever happened before, and th*^ same day
was the first of the neAV moon. And Osmond bisho^j of S`^silis-
bury died during Advent.

A. 1100. This year, at Christmas, king William held his
court in Gloucester ; and at Easter in Winchester ; and at
l^entecost in Westminster. And at Pentecost blood was
observed gushing from the earth, at a certain town of
Berkshire, even as many asserted who declared that they
luid seen it. And after this, on the morning after Lammas-day,
king William was shot with an arrow by his own men, as he
was hunting, and he was carried to Winchester and buried
there.* Tliis was in the thirteenth year from his accession.
lie was very powerful, and stern over his lands and subjects,
and towards all his neighbours, and much to be dreaded, and
through the counsels of evil men wliich were always pleasing
to him, and through his own avarice, he was ever vexing the
people with armies and with cruel taxes ; for in his days all
justice sank, and all unrighteousness arose, in the sight of
God and the world. He trampled on the church of God,
and as to the bishoprics and abbacies, the incumbents of
which died in his reign, he either sold them outright, or
kept them in his own hands, and set them out to renters ; for
he desired to be the heir of every one, churchman or layman,
so that the day on which he was killed he had in his own
hands the archbishopric of Canterbury, the bishoprics of
V/inchester and Salisbury, and eleven abbacies, all let out to
farm, and in fine, however long I may delay mention of it,|
all that was abominable to God and oppressive to men was
common in this island in William`s time : and therefore he
was hated by almost all his people, and abhorred by God as
his end showeth, in that he died in the midst of his
unrighteousness, without repentance or any reparation made
for lus evil deeds. He was slain on a Thursday, and buried
the next morning : and after he was buried, the witan wlio
were then near at hand, chose his brother Henry as king,

His monument is still to be seen there, a plain gravestone of black
marble, of the common shape c«lled " dos d`ane," sach as are now
frequently seen, though of inferior materials, in the church-yards of vili ige%
»md are only one remove from the grassy sod. — Ingram.

t liigram renders this, " though 1 may l>e tedious."


ai (1 he forthwitli gave the bishopric of Winchester to William
Gilfard, and then went to London ; and on tjie Sunday
following he made a promise to God and all the people,
before the altar at Westminster, that he would abolish the
injustice which prevailed in his brother`s time, and that he
would observe the most equitable of the laws established in
the days of any of the kings before him : and after this
Maurice bishop of London consecrated him as king, and all
the m.en of this land submitted to him, and swore oaths and
became his liege-men. And soon afterwards, the king, by
the advice of those about him, caused Ranulf bishop of
Durham to be taken and brought into the Tower of London,
and confined there. Then before IVIichaelmas Anselm
archbishop of Canterbury came to this land ; king Henry
having sent for him by the advice of his witan, because he had
left the country on account of the injustice done him by king
^Villiam. And soon afterwards the king took for his wife
Maud the daughter of Malcolm king of Scotland and of the
flood queen Margaret king Edward`s kinswoman, of the true
royal line of England ; and on Martinmas day she was given
to him with great pomp at W^estminster, and archbishop
Anselm wedded her to Henry, and afterwards consecrated
her as queen. And soon after this Thomas archbishop of
York died. This year also, in the autumn, earl Robert came
home into Normandy, and Robert earl of Flanders and
Eustace earl of Boulogne also returned from Jerusalem, and
on earl Robert`s arrival in Normandy he was joyfully
received by all the people, excepting those in the castles
which were garrisoned with king Henry`s men, and against
these he had many contests and struggles.

A. 1101. This year, at Christmas, king Henry held his
court at Westminster, and at Easter at Winchester. And
!?(>on afterwards the chief men of this land entered into a
league against the king, both from their own great treachery,
and through Robert earl of Normandy who had hostile
designs upon this land. And then the king sent out ships to
annoy and liinder his brother ; but some of them failed at
time of need, and deserted from the king, and submitted to
earl Robert. At Midsummer the king posted himself with
all his troops at Pevensey to oppose his brother, and he
waited for him there. And in the meantime earl Robert

176 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, a.d. iioi, 1102.

landed ::t Portsmouth twelve nights before Lammas, and the
king marched against him with all his forces ; but the chief
men interfered and made peace between them, on conditio*^
that the king should give up all those places in Normandy
which he then detained from his brother by force of arms ;
and that all who had lost their lands in England on the earl`s
account should have them again, and that earl Eustace
should also have his father`s estates in this country, and that
earl Robert should receive yearly 3000 marks of silver from
England ; and it was stipulated by tliis treaty that wliichever
of the brothers outlived the other, he should inherit all
England together with Normandy, unless the deceased left
legitimate issue. And twelve men of the highest rank on
either side confirmed this treaty by oath : and the earl
afterwards remained here till after Michaelmas ; and his men
did much harm wherever they went, whilst the earl stayed in
this land. This year also, at Candlemas, bishop Kanulf
escaped by night from the Tower of London, in which he
was confined, and went to Normandy. It was at his sugges-
tion chielly, that earl Robert was incited to invade this

A. 1102. This year king Henry was at Westminster
during tlie feast of the Nativity, and at Easter he was at
Winchester. And soon afterwards a difference arose between
the king and Robert of Belesme, who held the earldom of
Shrewsbury in this country, which his father earl Roger had
enjoyed before him, and who had other great possessions
both here and abroad ; and the king went and besieged
Arundel Castle, and when he found that he should not be
able to take it speedily, he caused castles to be built before
it, and garrisoned with his men ; and then he led all
his troops to Bridgenorth, and remained there till he had
reduced the castle, and deprived earl Robert of his lands,
and he took from him all that he possessed in England ; so
the earl departed over sea, and the king`s soldiers were
disbanded and returned home. On the Michaelmas following
the king was at Westminster, with all the head men of tliis
land, both clergy and laity ; and archbishop Anselm held a
synod, at which many decrees were made touching the
Christian religion ; and many abbats, both French and
English, lost their staffs and their abbacies, because they


tad obtained them unlawfully, or had lived unnghteously
therein. And the same year, in Pentecost week, there came
robbers, some from Auvergne, some from France, and some
from Flanders, and they brake into the monastery of Peter-
borough, and carried otf much treasure of gold and silver :
crosses, chalices, and candlesticks.

A. 1103. This year king Henry was at Westminster at
Christmas. And soon afterwards the bishop William G iifard
departed from this land, because he would not against riglit
receive consecration from Gerard arclibishop of York. And
at Easter the king held his court at Winchester ; and after-
wards, Anselm archbishop of Canterbury journeyed to Rome,
as he and the king had agreed. This year also earl Robert
of Normandy came to tliis land, to speak w4th the king, and
before he departed hence he gave up the 3000 marks which
king Henry should have paid him yearly according to the
treaty. This year blood was seen gushing out of the earth
at Hampstead,* in Berksliire. This w^as a year of much
distress from the manifold taxes, and also from a mortality
among the cattle, and from the failure of the crops, both of
the corn and all fruits of trees. In the morning also of St.
Lawrence`s day, the wind did so much damage to all the
fruit of this land, that no man remembered the like to have
ever happened before. The same year died Matthias abbat
of Peterborough, w^ho had not lived more than one year after
he was made abbat. After Michaelmas, on the 12th before the
Kalends of November, he was received in procession as abbat,
and the same day the year following he died at Gloucester,
and there he was buried.

A. 1104. This year, at Christmas, king Henry held his
court at Westminster, at Easter at Winchester, at Pentecost
again at Westminster. This year the first day of Pentecost
was on the Nones of June, and on the Tuesday after, at mid-
day, there appeared four circles of a white colour round the
sun, one under the other as if they had been painted. All
who saw it wondered, because they never remembered such
before. An alliance was afterwards formed between Robert
earl of Normandy and Robert of Belesme,t whom king
Henry had deprived of his estates, and di`iven out of Eng-

Fiiichaixistea>d. f Hence the English tame BeVsuayH


178 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, a.d. 1104.1106.

land, and from this, the king of England and the earl o\
Kormandy became at variance. And the king sent his
people over sea into Normandy, and the head men of that
country received them, and admitted them into their castles
in treachery to their lord the earl, and they greatly annoyed
the earl by plundering and burning his territories. This
year also, William earl of Moreton (Mortaigne) departed to
Normandy, and being there, he took arms against the king,
on which the king confiscated all his possessions and estates
in this country. It is not easy to describe the misery of this
land, which it suffered at this time through the various and
manifold oppressions and taxes that never ceased or slack-
ened : moreover wherever the king went his train fell to
j)lundering his wretched people, and withal there was much
burning and manslaughter. By all this was the anger of
God provoked, and this unhappy nation harassed.

A. 1105. This year, at Christmas, king Henry held his
court at Windsor, and the following Lent he went over sea
to Normandy against his brother earl Robert. And whilst
he remained there he won Caen and Bayeux from his brother,
and almost all the castles and chief men of that land became
gui>ject to him ; and in the autumn he came again to this
country. And all that he had conquered in Normandy re-
mained to him afterwards in peace and subjection, excepting
those places which lay in the neighbourhood of William earl
of Moreton,* and which he harassed continually as much as
harass he might, in revenge for the loss of his estates in
England. Then before Christmas Robert de Belesme came
hither to the king. This was a year of great distress from
< lie failure of the fruits, and from the manifold taxes wliich
never ceased, either before the king went abroad, while he
was there, or again after his return.

A. 1106. This year at Christmas, king Henry was at
Westminster, and there he held his court, and during this
festival Robert de Belesme departed from the king in enmity,
and left this country tor Normandy. After this, and before
Lent, the king was at Northampton, and his brother earl
Robert of Normandy came to him there ; and because the

" De Moritonio" is the Latin title ; the town of Mortaigne ia Nor-
n&nd) is tlie plai-e trom which it is tak«;n.


king would not give uy chat which he had won from the earl
in Normandy, they separated in enmity, and tlie earl soon
went again over sea. In the first week of Lent, on tlie
evening of Friday, tho 14th before tlie Kalends of March, a
strange star appeared, and it was seen a while every evening
for a longtime afterwards. This star appeared in the south-
west, it seemed small and dim, but the light that stood f]*om
it was very bright, and like an exceedingly long beam shining
to the north-east ; und one evening it seemed as if a beam
from over against the star darted directly into it. Some
persons said that th.;y observed more unknown stars at this
time, but we do not A^rite this as a certainty because we saw
tliem not ourselves. One night, the morrow being the day
of our Lord`s supper, that is, the Thursday before Easter,
two moons appeared before day in the heavens, the one in
the east and the other in the west, both full ; and the same
day was the 14th of the moon. At Easter the king was at
Bath, and at Pentecost at Salisbury, because he would not
hold his court over sea during his absence from this country.
After this before August, the king went into Normandy, and
almost all the inhabitants bowed to his will, excepting Robert
de Belesme, and the earl of Mortaigne, and a few other
chiefs who yet held with the earl of Normandy : the king
tlierefore came v/ith an army, and besieged a castle of the
earl of Mortaigne called Tinchebrai. Whilst the king wag
besieging this castle, Robert earl of Normandy and his army
came upon him on Michaelmas eve, and with him were
Robert de Belesme and William earl of Mortaigne, and all
who wished well to their cause, but strength and victory
were with the king. The earl of Normandy was taken,
together with the earl of Mortaigne and Robert de Stutte-
ville ; and they were afterwards sent to England, and kept
in confinement ; Robert de Belesme was put to flight, and
William Crispin was taken, with many others ; Edgar ethel-
ing who had gone over from the king to the earl a short
time before, was also taken ; but the king afterwards let him
depart unhurt. After this, the king subdued the whole of
Normandy, and brought it under his own will and power.
This year also there was a very terrible and sinful war
between the emperor of Saxony and his son, during which
the father died, and the son succeeded to the empire.

N 2

180 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. a.d. 1107-1109.

A. 1107. This year king Henry was in Normandy at
Christmas and reduced that land, and having settled the
government, he came to England the following Lent ; and he
held his court at Windsor at Easter, and at Pentecost he held
.t at Westminster. And in the beginning of August he was
again at Westminster, and there he gave away bishoprics
and abbacies, disposing of such as were without elders and
pifstors, both in England and Normandy ; the number of
these was so great that no man remembered that so many
were ever before given away at one time. And amongst
others who then received abbacies, Ernulf prior of Canter-
bury obtained that of Peterborough. This was about the
seventh year of king Henry`s reign, and the one and fortieth
year that the French ruled in this land. Many said that
they saw various tokens in the moon this year, and his* light
waxing and waning contrary to nature. This year died
Maurice bishop of London, and Robert abbat of St. Ed-
mund`s Bury, and Richard abbat of Ely. This year also
Edgar king of Scotland died on the Ides of January, and his
brother Alexander succeeded to the kingdom with king
Henry`s consent.

A. 1108. This year, at Christmas, king Henry was at
Westminster ; and at Easter at Winchester ; and at Pente-
cost again at Westminster. After this, before August, he
went into Normandy. And Philip king of France dying on
the Nones of August, his son Louis succeeded him, and there
were afterwards many battles between the kings of France
and of England, whilst Henry remained in Normandy. This
year also Gerard archbishop of York di`=*d before Pentecost,
and Thomas was afterwards appointed as his successor.

A. 1109. This year king Henry was in Normandy both at
Christmas and at Easter ; and before Pentecost he came
hither and held his court at Westminster, at which place the
stipulations were ratified, and the oaths sworn, relative t<;
the marriage of his daughter with the emperor. There wjipr
much thunder this year, and that very terrible. And An-
Belm archbishop of Canterbury died on the 11th before the
Kalends of April, and the first day of Easter was on the
greater Litany.

The moon is of the masculine gender, and the sun fe:niuine, ir
Anglo-Saxon, as in German, See a.d. 1110


A. 1110. This year, at CLristmas, king Henry lield his
court at Westminster ; and at Easter he was at Marlbo-
rough ; and at Pentecost lie held liis court for the first time
in the New Windsor. This year, before Lent, the king sent
his daughter with manifold treasures over sea, and gave her
to the emperor. On the fifth night of the month of May the
moon appeared shining brightly in the evening, and after-
wards his light waned by little and little, and early in tlie
night he was so wholly gone that neither light, nor circle,
nor anything at all of him was to be seen, and thus it con-
tinued till near day, and then he appeared shining full and
bright ; he was a fortnight old the same day : the sky was
very clear all the night, and the stars shone very brightly all
over the heavens, and the fruit trees were greatly injured by
that night`s frost. After this, in the month of June, there
appeared a star in the north-east, and its light stood before it
to the south-west, and it was seen tlius for many nights, and
ever as the night advanced it mounted upwards and was
seen going off to the north-west. This year Pliilip de Brause,*
and William Mallet, and William Baynard, were deprived of
their lands. This year also died earl Elias, who held Maine
in fee-tail f of king Henry ; but on his death the earl of An-
jou took possession of that province, and kept it against the
king`s will. This was a year of much distress from the
taxes which the king raised for his daughter`s dowry, and
from the bad weather by which the crops were greatly in-
jured, and nearly all the fruit on the trees destroyed through-
out the country. — This year men first began to work at the
new monastery of Chertsey.

A. 1111. This year king Henry wore not his crown at
Christmas, nor at Easter, nor at Pentecost. And in August
he was called over sea to Normandy, by the hostility of cer-
tain of his enemies on the marches of France, and principally
by that of the earl of Anjou, who held Maine against him :
and after his arrival many were the intrigues and great the

This is the term used by Miss Gumey. Dr. Ingram renders it
Braiose ; the Anglo-Saxon is Brause ; the Latin, Braiosa. Is not the
modem name Bracy derived from this root ?

+ That is, the territory was not a fee-simple, but sulject to taillnge, or
taxation ; and that particular species is probably here mtended, which ia
called in old French *` en queuage," an expression not very dittere3>{ Aom
that in the text above. — Inguah.

182 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, a.d 1112-1114

burning and plundering carried on hj either party against
the other. — This year Robert earl of Flanders died and his
son Baldwin succeeded him. The winter was very long tliis
year, a heavy and a severe time, by which the fruits of tlie
earth were much injured ; and there was the greatest pesti-
lence among the cattle ever remembered.

A. 1112. All this year king Henry remained in Nor-
mandy, on account of tlie war in which he was engaged with
France, and with the earl of Anjou, who held Maine against
him. And whilst he was there he deprived the earl of Ev-
reux and William Crispin of their lands, and drove them out
of Normandy : and he restored to Philip de Brause the es-
tates wliich had been taken from him, and he caused Robert
de Belcsme to be seized and put into prison. This was a
very good year as to the crops, the trees and fields being very
fruitful ; but it was a very heavy and a sorrowful time, by
reason of a dreadful pestilence among men.

A. 1113. This year king Henry was in Normandy at
Christmas, at Easter, and at Pentecost. And in the summer
he sent hither Robert de Belesme, to be confined in Wareham
castle, and he himself came to this land soon afterwards.

A. 1114. This year, at Christmas, king Henry held his
court at Windsor, and he held no court again this year.
And at Midsummer he entered Wales with an army, and the
Welsh came and treated with the king, and he caused castles
to be built in that country. And in September he went over
sea to Normandy. Li the end of May, this year, a strange
star with a long light was seen shining for many nights.
TMwhere in one day, as no man remembered before, so that
men went through the Thames both riding and walking, east
of London bridge. This year there were very high winds in
the month of October, and more especially on the night of
the octaves of St. Martin, as was apparent in all woods and
towns. Tliis year also the king gave the archbishopric of
Canterbury to Ralph bishop of Rochester ; and Thomas [II. j
archbishop of York died, and the king`s chaplain Thurstan
succeeded him. At this time the king went towards the sea,
and he would have gone over but he was detained by tho
weather. In the meanwhile he sent his writ to Ernulf ab-
bat of Peterborough, desiring him to come to him with speed.


for that he would speak with him on sometliing of import-
ance. On Ernulfs arrival, the king and the archbisho[)S
and bishops, and the English nobility who attended tlie king,
forced him to accept the bishopric of Rochester ; he with-
stood them long, but his resistance availed nothing. And
the king commanded the archbishop to take him to Canter-
bury, and to consecrate him as bishop whether he would or
not. This was done in the town called Burne* on the 17th
before the Kalends of October. When the monks of Pet(M--
borough heard this, they were so sorry as never before, be-
cause Ernulf was a very good and a mild man, and did much
good within the monastery and out of it whilst he remained
there. May Almighty God be ever with him ! Soon after-
wards, at the request of the archbishop of Canterbury, the
king gave that abbacy to a monk of Sieyes named John.
And soon after this the king and the archbishop sent him to
Rome for the archbishop`s pall, and with him a monk named
Warner, and the archdeacon John the archbishop`s nephew,
and they sped well on their journey. This was done on the
11th before the Kalends of October, at the town called Ruge-
nor (Rowner, near Gosport), and the same day the king took
ship at Portsmouth.

A. 1115. This year, during Christmas, king Henry was
in Normandy, and whilst he was there he caused all the
chief men of Normandy to do homage and swear oaths of
allegiance to his son William, whom he had by his queen;
and afterwards in the month of July he returned hither.
This year the winter was so severe with snow and with
frost, that no man then living remembered a harder: and
it occasioned much disease among the cattle. This year
pope Paschal sent hither a pall to archbishop Ralph, and
he received it with much pomp at his see of Canterbury.
Anselm an abbat of Rome, the nephew of archbishop Aii-
selm, and John abbat of Peterborough, brought the pall
from Rome.

A. 1116. This year, at Christmas, king Henry was at
St. Alban`s, and tliere he caused the monastery to be con-
secrated; and at Easter he was at Wudiham.j This year

* " East Boume, in Sussex, where the king was waiting for a fair wind
to carry him over sea." — Inglj^ml `` Sittingbum."— Mis» Gu&n£t.
k Odiliam.


also, the winter being severe and long, it was a very heavy
time for the cattle and all things. And soon after Easter
the king went over sea, and much treachery was practisui,
and there was plundering and taking of castles between
France and Normandy. The chief cause of enmity was
that king Henry aided his nephew earl Theobald de Blois,
who was then at war with his lord Louis king of France.
This was a very calamitous year, the crops being spoiled by
the heavy rains, which came on just before August and
lasted till Candlemas. Mast also was so scarce this year
that none was to be heard of in all this land, or in Wales :
moreover this land and nation were many times sorely op-
pressed by the taxes which the king raised both within the
towns and out of them. This year also the whole of the
monastery of Peterborough was burnt, with all the houses,
excepting the chapter-house and the dormitory : and the
greater part of the town was burnt also. All this happened
on a Friday, being the 2nd day before the Nones of August.

A. 1117. All this year king Henry abode in Normandy,
because of the war with the king of France and his other
neighbours: then in the summer the king of France, and
the earl of Flanders with him, entered Normandy with an
army and remained in the country one night, and went away
again in the morning without fighting. And Normandy was
greatly oppressed by taxes and by the levies of troops that
king Henry raised to oppose them. This nation also v/as
sorely aggrieved in like manner, to wit, by the manifold
taxes. This year also there was a violent storm of thunder
and lightning, rain and hail, on the night before the Kalends
of December ; and on the 3rd nigljt before the Ides of Decem-
ber the moon appeared for a long time as it were bloody, and
then it was darkened. Also, on the night of the 17th before
the Kalends of January the heaven appeared very red, as if
it were burning. And on the octave of St. John the Evan-
gelist`s day there was a great earthquake in Lombardy, by
which many monasteries, towers, and houses were thrown
down, and the inhabitants suffered greatly. This was a very
bad year for tlie corn, through the rains which ceased scarcely
at all. And Gilbert abbat of Westminster died on tlie 8th
befors the Ides of December, and Farit* abbat of Abingduu

* 1 iricius is the Latin name. li be tlie same who WTOte ti)6 i»f« ol


died on tlie 7th before the Kalends of March. Aiid in th6
same year

A. 1118. All this year king Henry was in Normandy,
Deing at war with the king of France, and with the earl ot
Aiijoii, and with the earl of Flanders. And the earl ot
Flanders was Avounded in Normandy, on which he returned
to Flanders. The king was greatly impoverished by this
war, and lost much money and land, and he was most
liarassed by liis own men, who continually revolted and be-
trayed him, and went over to his enemies, and treacherously
gave up their castles in the king`s despite. England paid
dearly for all this by the manifold taxes which ceased not all
this year. This year, one evening in Epiphany week, there
^as dreadful lightning which caused many deaths. And
queen Matilda died at Westminster on the Kalends of May,
and was buried there. And Robert earl of Mellent died
also this year. This year also, on St. Thomas`s day, there
was so exceedingly high a wind that none who then lived
remembered a greater, and this might be seen everywhere
from the state of the houses and of the trees. Pope Paschal
also died this year, and John of Gaeta, whose other name
was Gelasius, succeeded to the popedom.

A. 1119. All this year king Henry remained in Normandy,
and was greatly perplexed by the war with the king of France,
and by the treachery of liis own men, who were continually
revolting from him, till at length the two kings with their
forces met in Normandy. The king of France was there put
to flight and all his best men taken, and many of king
Henry`s vassals who with the garrisons of their castles had
been against him, now submitted, and were reconciled to
him, and some of the castles he took by force. This year,
William the son of king Henry and of queen Matilda went
to Normandy to his father, and the daughter of the earl of
Anjou was there given and wedded to liim. On Michaelmas
eve there was a great earthquake in some parts of this land ;
and it was felt most in Gloucestershire and Worcestershire.
The same year pope Gelasius died on this side of the moun-
tains, and he was buried at Cluny ; and the archbishop ot
Vienne was chosen pope, his name was Calixtus. He

bif*hi)j) AMheJra, published in the end of my edition of Aldlielm`g woik*?
lAidhtlrni Opera, Oxon. Lond. et Cant. 1845.]

185 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, a. d. 1119-1121,

afterwards came to Rlieims, in France, on the feast of St.
Luke the evangelist, and held a council there. And
Thurstan archbishop of York journeyed thither, and because
he received consecration from the pope, against right, and to
the prejudice of the see of Canterbury, and against the
king`s will, Henry wliolly forbade his return to England ;
and being thus deprived of his archbishopric, he proceeded
with the pope towards Rome. This year also Baldwin earl
of Flanders died of the wound which he had received in
Normandy, and was succeeded by Charles the son of his
aunt and of St. Canute, king of Denmark.

A. 1120. This year peace was made between the kings of
England and of France, and after this all king Henry`s own
men in Normandy made their peace with him ; also the earls
of Flanders and of Ponthieu. Then the king ordered and
disposed of his castles and land in Normandy after his own
will ; and so, before Advent, he returned to England. And
the king`s two sons William and Richard were drowned in
tlie passage, together with Richard earl of Chester, and
Ottuel his brother ; and very many of the king`s court,
stewards, and chamberlains, and butlers, and other men in
olfice, and an innumerable multitude of all ranks, were also
h)st. The manner of their death was a twofold grief to their
friends, first because they lost their lives so suddenly, and
next that few of their bodies were ever found. And this
year that remarkable light twice came upon our Lord`s
sepulchre at Jerusalem, once at Easter, and again on the
Assumption of St. Mary, according to the report of men of
credit, who came from thence. And Thurstan archbishop of
York was reconciled to the king through the pope, and he
came to this land, and was put in possession of his arch-
bishopric, though much against the will of the archbishop of

A. 1121. This year, at Christmas, king Henry was at
Bramton, and before Candlemas Athelis was given him to
wife at Windsor, and afterwards consecrated queen ; she was
tlie daughter of the duke of Louvain. And the moon was
eclipsed on the night before the Nones of April, being the
fourteenth day of the moon. And the king was at Berkley
at Easter, and the Pentecost following he held a p:reat couii;
at Westminster, and in the summer he entered Wales with


an army, and the Welsh came to meet him, and made a
treaty with him on his own terms. This year the earl of
Aiijou returned from Jerusahyn to his own land, and after
this he sent hither to fetch away his dangliter who had been
married to the king`s son William. And on the night of
Cliristmas eve there was a very high wind throughout tliis
land, as might be seen plaitdy in its effects.

A. 1122. This year king Henry was at Norwich at
Christmas, and at Easter he was at Northampton. And tlie
town of Gloucester was burned the Lent before, for while
the monks were singing mass, the deacon having begun the
gospel `` PrcBteriens Jesiis,^^ the fire fell on the top of tlie
steeple,* and burned the whole monastery, and all the treasures
in it, excepting a few books and three vestments : this haj)-
pened on the eighth before the Ides of March. And there
was a very high wind on the Tuesday after Palm Sunday,
tlie eleventh before the Kalends of April : after this many
strange tokens were noticed throughout England, and many
ghosts were seen and heard. And on the night of the eighth
before the Kalends of August, there was a great earthquake
throughout Somersetshire and Gloucestershire. Again on
the sixth before the Ides of September, St. Mary`s day,
there was a very high wind, which continued from nine in
the morning till dark night. The same year Ralph arch-
bisliop of Canterbury died on the thirteenth before the
Kalends of November. After this many shipmen were at
sea, and on the water, and said that they saw a fire in the
north-east, large and broad, near the earth, and that it grew
in height unto the welkin, and the welkin divided into four
parts and fought against it, as it would have quenched it ;
nevertheless the fire flamed up to heaven. They observed
this fire at day-break, and it lasted until it was light every
where : this was on the seventh before the Ides of l3ecember,

A. 1123. This year king Henry was at Dunstable at
Christmas, and the messengers from the earl of Anjou came
to him there, and he proceeded thence to Woodstock, and his

* By steeple we are here to understand not a spire, but a tower ; spires
not bijing then invented. 1 believe `siear ` is the word in Saxon to express
^)\»i we mean by a spire ; `stepel,` or `steopel,` signifying only a sleep,
loity, or perpendicular structure ; and our old antiquarians very properly
Bftke a distinction between a spire-steeple and a tower-steeple." — Imgjum.


bishops and all his court with him. Now it fell out on a
Wednesday, being the fourth before the Ides of January,
that the king rode in his deer-park, and Roger bishop of
Salisbury was on one side of him, and Robert Bloet bishop
of Lincoln on the other ; and they rode there talking. Then
the bishop of Lincoln sank down, and said to the king,
*` My lord king ! I am dying," and the king alighted from liis
hoi^se, and took him between his arms, and bade them bear
him to his inn, and he soon lay there dead ; and they took
his body with much pomp to Lincoln, and Robert bishop of
Chester,* who was called Pecceth, buried him befOTe St.
Mary`s altar. Soon after this the king sent his writs over
all England, and desired his bishops, his abbats, and his
thanes, that they should all come to the meeting of his witan
at Gloucester, on Candlemas-day, and they obeyed ; and
when they were there assembled the king bade them choose
to themselves whomsoever they would as archbishop of
Canterbury, and that he would confirm their choice. Then
the bishops spake among themselves, and said that they
would never more have a man of any monastic order as
archbishop over them. And they all with one accord went
to the king, and entreated that they might choose one of the
clergy for their archbishop, and to this the king consented.
All this had been set on foot by tlie bishop of Salisbury, and
by the bishop of Lincoln before he died, for they never loved
the rule of monks, but were ever against monks and their
rule. And the prior and monks of Canterbury and all
others of the monastic order who were there, resisted this
proceeding two full days, but in vain, for the bishop of
Salisbury f was very powerful, and swayed all England, and
he was against them with all his might. Then they chose a
clerk named William of Curboil, he was a canon of a
monastery called Cliiche ; J and they brought him before tlie
king, who gave him the archbishopric, and he was received

* Or Lichfield. Peter, the bishop of that see in 1075 removed it to
Chester, where it remained for a short period. Hence the bishops are
frequently styled bishops of Chester. The present bishopri`c of Chester
was not founded till 1541.

t Ro<2;er, bishop of Salisbury, was Lord Chief Justice, Lord Chanceii`.^r,
and Lord Treasurer.

t "St. Osythe, in Essex ; a priory rebuilt a. 1118, for canons of the
Aivgvurtiiie order, of which there are considerable remains." — Inoium.


by all the bishops ; but the monks and carls, and ihnost all
tlie thanes who were there, would not acknowledge him.
At this same time the messengers of the earl departed from
the king dissatisfied, notliing regarding his gifts. At this
time also a legate arrived from Rome ; his name was Henry,
and he was abbat of the monastery of St. John of Angelo.
He came for the Romescot ; and told tlie king that a clerk
had no right to be set over monks, and that therefore they
had formerly chosen the archbishop in the chaptei;, as was
befitting ; but, for love of the bishop of Salisbury, the king
would not undo his act. Soon afterwards, the archbishop
went to Canterbury, and was received, though unwillingly,
and he was forthwith consecrated there by the bishop of
London, and Ernulf bishop of Rochester, and William
GifiTard bishop of Winchester, and Bernard bishop of Wales
(St. David`s), and Roger bishop of Salisbury. Then early
in Lent the archbishop journeyed to Rome for his pall, and
Bernard bishop of Wales, and Sefred abbat of Glastonbury,
and Anselm abbat of St. Edmund`s, and John archdeacon of
Canterbury, and GiiFard who was the king`s court-chaplain,
went with him. Thurstan archbishop of York went to Rome
at the same time by order of the pope, and he arrived three
days before the archbishop of Canterbury, and was received
with much honour. Then came the archbishop of Canter-
bury, and it was a full week before he could obtain an
audience of the pope, because the pope had been given to
understand that he had received the archbishopric in opposi-
tion to the monks of the monastery, and against right ; but
that which overcometh all the world, namely gold and
silver,* overcame Rome also, and the pope relented and gave

" How fortunate for the -RTiter that the pope and his cardinals did not
understand Saxon ! The boldness of this remark might otherwise have
procured him the distinguished honour of an excommunication. Matthew
Paris has a similjir remark, but less openly expressed, respecting the
venality of the Roman see : ` qucB nulli deexe consuevit, dummodo albi
aliquid vol rubei intercedat. An. 1103.` Dr. Ingram might have quoted
an equally elegant compliment paid to the cardinals, " quorum nares
odor hicri questus causa infcecavit,`` by Alan of Tewkesbury, if the ortho-
dox editor of the Brussels edition of Vita Sancti Thomae had not carefully
expunged the passage : I have only done justice to historical accuracy by
restoring the ofterusive worda in " Vita Sancti Thonug, vol. i. p. 359, eJiU
Oavn. et Lond. **

190 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. a.d. 1123. im.

Iiim hl,=» pall, and the archbishop swore obedience in all things
that he should impose, on the heads of St. Peter and St.
Paul, and the pope then sent him home with liis blessing.
Wliilst the archbishop was abroad, the king gave the
bishopric of Bath to the queen`s chancellor, named Godfrey ;
he was of Louvain : this was done at Woodstock on the
Annunciation of St. Mary. Soon afterwards the king went
to Winchester, where he remained during the festival of
Easter ; and while there he gave the bishopric of Lincoln to
a clerk named Alexander, who was a nephew of the bishop
of Salisbury, and he did this all for love of that bishop.
Tlien the king proceeded to Portsmouth, and stayed there over
Pentecost week ; and as soon as he had a fair wind he sailed
for Normandy, having committed all England to the care
and administration of Roger bishop of Salisbury. The king
was in Normandy all this year, and a great war broke out
between him and his thanes, for earl Waleram of Mellent,
and Amalric, and Hugh of Montfort, and William of Romare,
and many others revolted from him and held their castles
against him ; and the king on his part opposed them with
vigour, and the same year he won from Waleram his castle
of Pont-Audemer, and from Hugh that of Montfort, and
after this his aifairs continued to prosper more and more. The
same year, before the bishop of Lincoln came to his see,
nearly the whole town of Lincoln was burnt, with a great
number of persons, both men and women, and so much harm
was done that no man could tell another how great the
damage was. This happened on the fourteenth before the
Kalends of June.

A. 1124. All this year king Henry was in Normandy,
being detained there by his great wars with Louis king of
France, and the earl of Anjou, and with his own subjects
most of all. Then it befell on the day of the annunciation of
St. iNIary, that Waleram earl of Mellent was going from one
of his castles called Beaumont, to another, Watteville, and
Amalric the steward of the king of France, and Hugh the
son of Gervais, and Hugh of Montfort, and many other gc^)d
knights went with him. Then the king`s knights from all
the neighbouring castles came against them, and fought with
them, and put them to flight, and they took the earl Waleram,
(yid Hugh the son of Gervais, and Hugh of Montfort, and


^ve and twenty othor kniglits, and brouglit them to the king ;
fi\d the king caused earl VValeram and Hugh the son of
Nervals to be confined in the castle of Rouen, and he pent
ilugh of Montfort to England, and caused him to be put in
4rong bonds in that of Gloucester, and as many of the others
as he thought fit he sent north and south to his castles for
confinement. Then the king went on, and won all earl
Waleram`s castles in Normandy, and all the others which his
enemies held against him. All this was on account of the
son of Robert earl of Normandy named William. The same
William had married the younger daughter of Fulk earl of
Anjou, and for this cause the king of France, and all the
farls and great men held with him, and said that the king
did wrongfully keep his brother Robert in confinement, and
that he had unjustly driven his son William out of Nor-
mandy. This year there was much unseasonable weather
which injured the corn and all fruits in England, so that,
i>etween Christmas and Candlemas, one acre`s seed of wheat,
that is, two seedlips, sold for six shillings, and one of barley,
that is, three seedlips, for six shillings, and one acre`s seed of
oats, being four seedlips, for four shillings. It was thus,
because corn was scarce, and the penny* was so bad, that
the man who had a pound at the market, could hardly, for
any thing, pass twelve of these pennies. The same year, the
holy bishop of Rochester Ernulf, who had been abbat of
Peterborough, died on the Ides of March. After this died
Alexander king of Scotland, on the 9th before the Kalends of
May, and his brother David, then earl of Northamptonshire,
succeeded him, and held at the same time both the kingdom
of Scotland and the English earldom. And the pope of
Rome called Calixtus died on the 19th before the Kalends of
tJanuary, and Honorius succeeded to the popedom. Tlie
.same year, after St. Andrew`s day, and before Christmas,
Ralph Basset, and the king`s thanes held a witenagemot at
Iluncothoe, in Leicestersliire, and there they hanged more
thieves than had ever before been executed within so short
a time, being in all four and forty men ; and they depi-ived
BIX men of their eyes and certain other members.| Many

The pennies were of silver at this time.

f ** Of here aegon and of here stanes," — Original tesU


men of truth said that several of them suffered with great
injustice, but our Lord God Almighty, who seeth and
knoweth all hidden things, seeth that the miserable people is
oppressed with all unrighteousness ; first men are bereaved
of their property, and then they are slain. Full heavy a
year was this ; he wlio had any property was bereaved of it
by heavy taxes and assessments, and he who had none,
starved with hunger.

A. 1125. Before Christmas, this year, king Henry sent
from Normandy to England, and commanded that all the
mint-men of England sliould be deprived of their limbs,
nameiy of their right hands and of certain other members.
And this because a man might have a pound, and yet not be
able to spend one penny at a market. And Roger bishop of
Salisbury sent over all England, and desired all of them to
come to Winchester at Christmas ; and when they came
thither liis men took them one by one, and cut off their right
hands. All this was done within the twelve days, and with
much justice, because they had ruined this land with the great
quantity of bad metal which they all bought. This year the
pope of Rome sent John of Crema, a cardinal, to this land. He
first came to the king in Normandy, and the king received him
with much honour, and commended him to William archbishop
of Canterbury, who conducted him to Canterbury ; and he was
there received with much pomp, and a great procession, and
he sang the high mass at Christ`s altar on Easter day ; and then
he journeyed over all England, to all the bishoprics and
abbacies, and he was honourably received every where, and
all gave him great and handsome gifts ; and in September
he held his council in London full three days, (beginning) on
the Nativity of St. Mary, with the archbishops, bishops, and
abbats, and the clergy and laity, and he sanctioned the laws
which archbishop Anselm had made, and he enacted many
others, though they remained in force but a little while.
Thence he went over sea soon after Michaelmas, and so to
Rome. William archbishop of Canterbury, and Thurstan
archbishop of York, and Alexander bishop of Lincoln, and
John bishop of Lothian (Glasgow), and Geoffrey abbat of
St Alban`s accompanied him, and were received with great
honour by the pope Honorius, and they remained there the
whole winter. The same year there was so great a flood on

A.i>. 1126. 1127. THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 103

St. Lawrence`s day, that many towns were deluged, and men
drowned, the bridges were broken up, and the corn fiehls and
meadows spoiled ; and there was famine and disease upon
men and cattle ; and it was so bad a season lor all fruits as
had not been for many years before. The same year John
abbat of Peterborough died on the 2nd before the Ides of

A. 1126. This year king Henry was in Normandy till
after harvest ; and he came to this land between the nativity
of St. Mary, and Michaelmas, accompanied by the queen,
and by his daughter whom he had before given in marriage
to the emperor Henry of Lorrain. He brought with him
the earl Waleram, and Hugh the son of Gervais, and he
imprisoned the earl at Bridge-north, and he afterwards sent
him to Wallingford, and he sent Hugh to Windsor, and
caused him to be kept in strong bonds. And after Michael-
mas David king of Scotland came hither, and king Henry
received him w4th much honour, and he abode through the
year in this land. The same year the king caused his
brother Robert to be taken from Roger bishop of Salisbury,
and delivered to his son Robert earl of Gloucester, and he
caused him to be removed to Bristol, and put into the castle.
All this was done through the advice of his daughter, and of
her uncle David king of Scotland.

A. 1127. This year, at Christmas, king Henry held his
court at Windsor, and David,, king of Scotland, was there,
and all the head men of England, both clergy and laity.
And the king caused the archbishops, bishops, abbats, earls,
and ail the thanes who were present, to swear to place Eng-
land and Normandy, after his death, in the hands of his
daughter the princess, who had been the wife of the emperor
of Saxony. And then he sent her to Normandy, accom-
y^anied by her brother Robert, earl of Gloucester^ and by
Brian, the son of the earl Alan Fergan ; and he caused her
to be wedded to the son of the earl of Anjou, named
Geoffrey Martell. Howbeit this displeased all the French
and the English, but the king did it to have the alliance* of

* Mis3 Gumey renders this " to obtain peace from,` following Gibson
wlio turns ` sibbe` into Latin by pacem, which Ingrair. justly disjxpprove*
of, on the ground that the powerful Henry would hardly fear so small «
potentate as the earl of Anjou.


the earl of Anjou and aict aa^ainst his nephew William. The
same year Charles, earl of Flanders, was slain in Lent by his
own men, as he lay before the altar in a church, and prayed
to God during mass. And the king of France brought
William, the son of the earl of Normandy, and gave him the
earldom, and the men of Flanders received him. The same
William had before taken to wife the daughter of the earl of
Anjou, but they were afterwards divorced because of their
nearness of kin, and this through the interference of Henry,
king of England; he afterwards married the sister of the
king of France, and on this account the king gave him the
earldom of Flanders. The same year Henry gave the abbacy
of Peterborough to an abbat named Henry of Poitou, who
was in possession of the abbacy of St. Jean d`Angeli ; and
all the archbishops and bishops said that this grant was
against right, and that he could not have in hand two ab-
bacies. But the same Henry made the king believe that ho
had given up his abbey on account of the great disquietude
of the land, and that he had done so by the order and with
the leave of the pope of Rome, and of the abbat of Cluny,
and because he was legate for collecting the Rome-scot.
Nevertheless it was not so, but he wished to keep both
abbeys in his own hands, and he did hold them as long as it
was the will of God. Li his clerical state he was bishop of
Soissons, afterwards he was a monk at Cluny, then prior of
the same monastery, and next he was prior of Sevigny ;
after this, being related to the king of England and to the
earl of Poitou, the earl gave him the abbey of St. Jean
d`Angeli. Afterwards, by his great craft, he obtained the
archbishopric of Besan^on, and kept possession of it three
day; and then lost he it right worthily, in that he had
gotten it with all injustice. He then obtained the bishopric
of Saintes, which was five miles from his own abbey, and he
kept this for nearly a week, but here again the abbat of
Clugny displaced him, as he had before removed him from
Besan9on. Now he bethought liimself, that if he could be
sheltered in England, he might have all his will, on whicli
he besought the king, and said to him that he was an old
man, and completely broken, and that he could not endure
the wrongs and oppressions of that land, and he asked the
king himself, and through all his friends, by name for the


abbacy of Peterborough. And the king granted it to him,
forasmuch as he was Iiis kinsman, and in that he had been
one of the first to swear oaths, and to bear witness, when the
son of the earl of Normandy and the daughter of the earl of
Anjou were divorced on the plea of kindred. Thus vex-
atiously was the abbacy of Peterborough given away at Lon-
don, between Christmas and Candlemas ; and so Henry
went with the king to Winchester, and thence he came to
Peterborough, and there he lived even as a drone in a hive ;
as the drone eateth and di`aggeth forward to himself all that
is brought near, even so did he ; and thus he sent over sea
all that he could take from religious or from seculai*, both
within and without ; he did there no good, nor did he leave
any there. Let no man think lightly of the marvel that we
are about to relate as a truth, for it was full well known
over all the country. It is this; that as soon as he came
there,* it was on the Sunday, when men sing " Exurge
quare Domine;" several persons saw and heard many
hunters hunting. — These hunters were black, and large, and
loathly, and their hounds were all black, with wide eyes, and
ugly, and they rode on black horses and on black bucks.
This was seen in the very deer-park of the town of Peter-
borough, and in all the woods from the same town to Stam-
ford; and the monks heard the blasts of the horns which
they blew in the night. Men of truth kept in the night
their watch on them, and said that there might well be about
twenty or thirty horn-blowers. This was seen and heard
from the time that the abbat came thither, all that Lent,
until Easter. Such was his entrance, of his exit we can say
nothing yet : God knoweth it.

A. 1128. All tliis year king Henry was in Normandy, on
account of the war between him and his nephew the earl oi
Flanders ; but the earl was wounded in battle by a servant,
and being so wounded he went to the monastery of St. Ber-
lin, and forthwith he was made a monk, and lived five days
after, and then died, and was buried there: God rest his
soul ! He was buried on the 6th before the Kalends of

* Thaer` in the original, not * thider.* Dr. Ingram remarks, that this
IB the first instance of the negligent use of the wcrd ` there` for " thither.`
But use is second nature, and in conversation at Jeast, the fcjsaer of these
otda has entirely supersedsd the latter.



August. The same year died Randulph PasseflamLard
bishop of Durham, and he was buried there on the Nones
of September. And this year the aforesaid abbat Henry
went home to his own monastery in Poitou, with the king`s
leave. He had given the king to understand that he would
wholly quit that monastery, and that country, and abide
with him in England, and at his monastery at Peterborough.
But so it was not, for he spake thus guilefully, wishing to
remain there a twelvemonth or more, and then to return
again. May Almighty God have mercy upon this wretched
place ! The same year Hugh of the Temple came from
Jerusalem to the king in Normandy, and the king received
him with much honour, and gave him much treasure in gold
and silver, and afterwards he sent him to England, and
there he was well received by all good men, and all gave
him treasures ; and in Scotland also : and they sent in all a
great sum of gold and silver by him to Jerusalem. And He
invited the people out to Jerusalem, and there went with
liim and after him so great a number, as never before since
the first expedition in the days of pope Urban. Yet this
availed little : he said that there was a furious war between
the Christians and the heathens, and when they came there
it was nothing but leasing. Thus were all these people
miserably betrayed.

A. 1129. This year the king sent to England after earl
Waleram, and after Hugh the son of Gervase ; and there
they gave him hostages, and Hugh went home to France
his own country, and Waleram remained with the king, and
the king gave him all his lands, excepting his castle alone.
Then the king came to England in harvest, and the earl
came with him, and they were as great friends as they had
been enemies before. Then soon, by the king`s counsel and
consent, William archbishop of Canterbury sent over all
England, and commanded the bishops, and abbats, and arch-
deacons, and all the priors, monks, and canons of all the
^ells of England, and all who had the charge and oversight
if the Christian religion, that they should come to London
at Michaelmas, to hold conference upon all God`s rights.
^Vhen they came thither, the meeting began on the Monday
and lasted till the Friday, and it came out that it was all
concerning the wives of archdeacons and priests, that they


should part with them by St. Andrew`s day ; and that he
wlio woiihl not do this, shouhl forego liis church, his house,
and his home, and never be permitted again to claim them.
Tliis was ordered by William archbishop of Canterbury, and
all the bishops of England : and the king gave them leave to
depart, and so they went home, and these decrees were in no
respect observed, for all kept their wives, by the king`s per-
mission, even as before. The same year William Giffard
bishop of Winchester died, and was buried there on the 8th
before the Kalends of February ; and after Michaelmas the
king gave the bishopric to his nephew Henry abbat of Glas-
tonbury, and he was consecrated by William archbishop of
Canterbury on the fifteenth before the Kalends of December.
The sam« year died pope Honorius, and before he was well
dead, two popes were chosen. The one was named Peter,
he was a monk of Clugny, and descended from the greatest
men of Rome, and the Romans and the duke of Sicily held
with him ; the other was named Gregory, he was a clerk,
and he was driven from Rome by the other pope and his
kinsmen, and he was acknowledged by the emperor of Sax-
ony, by the king of France, by Henry king of England, and
by all on this side of the mountains. There was now so great
a division in Christendom, that the like had never been
before. May Christ appoint good counsel for his miserable
people ! The same year there was a great earthquake on
St. Nicholas`s night, a little before day.

A. 1130. This year the monastery of Canterbury was
consecrated by archbishop William, on the 4th before the
Nones of May. The following bishops were there : John of
Rochester, Gilbert Universal of London, Henry of Win-
chester, Alexander of Lincoln, Roger of Salisbury, Simon
of Worcester, Roger of Coventry, Godfrey of Bath, Ever-
ard of Norwich, Sigefrid of Chichester, Bernard of St.
David`s, Owen of Evreux, in Normandy, and John of Sie-
zes. On the fourth day after this, king Henry was at Ro-
chester, and nearly the whole town was burnt down ; and
archbishop William and the aforesaid bishops consecrated
St. Andrew`s monastery And king Henry went over sea
to Normandy during harvest. The same year Henry abba/
of Angeli came to Peterborough after Easter, and said that
he had wholly given up that monastery. After him. tiie


abbat of Clugny named Peter came to England with the
king`s leave, and he was received with much honour wher-
ever he went ; he came to Peterborough, and there the abbat
Henry promised that he would obtain for him the monastery
of Peterborough, and that it should be annexed to Clugny
but as it is said in the proverb :

" The hedge still stands
That parts the lands."

May Almighty God frustrate evil counsels ! And soon
afterwards the abbat of Clugny went home to his own
country. Tliis year was Angus slain by the Scottish army,
and a great number of persons with him. There was God`s
right wrought upon Mm, for that he was all forsworn.

A. 1131. This year, on a moonlight night* after Christ-
mas, during the first sleep, the northern half of the heaven
was, as it were, a burning fire ; so that all who saw it were
more afearedj than ever they were before; this happened on
the 3rd before the Ides of January. The same year there
was so great a pestilence amongst animals over all England,
as had not been in the memory of man; it chiefly fell on
cattle and on swine, so that in the town where ten or twelve
ploughs had been going, not one remained, and the man, who
had possessed two or three hundred swine, had not one left
him. After this the hens died ; and flesh-meat became
scarce, and cheese and butter. God mend the state of
things when such is his will ! And king Henry came home
to England before harvest, after the feast of St. Peter ad vin-
cula. The same year before Easter the abbat Henry went
from Peterborough over sea to Normandy, and there he
spoke with the king, and told him that the abbat of Clugny
had commanded him to come over, and resign to him the
abbey of Angely ; and that then, with his leave, he would
return home : and so he went to his own monastery and
abode there till Midsummer-day. And on the day after the
feast of St. John, the monks chose an abbat from among
themselves, and brought him into the church in procession ;
they sang Te Deum laudamus, rang the bells, and set him
on the abbat`s seat, and did all obedience to him, even tm

" Luna spl end ante." — Gibs. " Monday night." — iMutuji.
« The original An^ilo-Saxon has it so* ` otfuerd.*


they would Xj their abbat ; and the earl and all the chief
men and the monks drove the other abbat Henry out of the
nonastery, and well they might, for in five and twenty years
they had never known a good day. All lis great craftiness
failed liim here, and now it belioved him to creep into any
corner, and to consider if perchance there yet remained some
slippery device, by which he might once more betray Christ
and all Christian people. Then went he to Cliigny, and
there they kept him, so that he could go neither east nor
west ; the abbat of Clugny saying that they had lost St.
John`s minster through him, and his great sottishness ;
wherefore seeing he could give no better compensation, he
promised and swore on the holy relics, that if he might pro-
ceed to England he would obtain for them the monastery of
Peterborough, and would establish there a prior of Clugny,
a churchwarden, a treasurer, and a keeper of the robes, and
that he w^ould make over to them all things both within and
without the monastery. Thus he went into France and
abode there all the year. May Christ provide for the
wretched monks of Peterborough, and for that miserable
place, for now do they stand in need of the help of Christ
and of all Christian people.

A. 1132. This year king Henry returned to this land;
then the abbat Henry came, and accused the monks of Peter-
borough to the king, because he desired to subject that mon-
astery to Clugny ; so that the king was well nigh beguiled,
and sent for the monks ; but by God`s mercy, and through
the bishops of Salisbury and Lincoln, and the other great
men who were there, he found out that the abbat dealt
treacherously. When he could do no more, he wished
that his nephew might be abbat of Peterborough, but this
was njt the will of Christ. It was not very long after
this that the king sent for him, and made him give up the
abbey of Peterborough, and depart out of the country, and
the king granted the abbacy to a prior of St. Neot`s named
Martin, and he came to the monastery, right worshipfuUy
attended, on St. Peter`s day.

A. 1135. This year, at Lammas, king Henry went over
sea : and on the second day, as he lay asleep in the ship, the
day was darkened universally, and the sun became as if it
were a moon three nights old. with the stars sliining round it


at mid-day. Men greatly marvelled, and great fear ^ell on
them, and they said that some great event should follow there-
after — and so it was, for the same year the king died in Nor-
mandy, on the day after the feast of St. Andrew. Soon did
this land fall into trouble, for every man greatly began to rob
his neighbour as he might. Then king Henry`s sons and
his friends took his body, and brought it to England, and
buried it at Reading. He was a good man, and great wab
the awe of him ; no man durst ill treat another in his time :
he made peace for men and deer. Whoso bare his burden
of gold and silver, no man durst say to him ought but good.
In the meantime his nephew Stephen de Blois had arrived in
England, and he came to London, and the inhabitants re-
<3eived him, and sent for the archbishop, William Corboil,
who consecrated him king on midwinter-day. In this king`s
time was all discord, and evil-doing, and robbery ; for the
powerful men who had kept aloof, soon rose up against him ;
the first was Baldwin de Redvers, and he held Exeter against
the king, and Stephen besieged him, and afterwards Baldwin
made terms with him. Then the others took their castles,
and held them against tlie king, and David, king of Scotland,
bfitook him to Wessington [Derbysliire], but notwithstanding
liis array, messengers passed between them, and they came
together, and made an agreement, though it availed little.

A. 1137. This year king Stephen went over sea to Nor-
mandy, and he was received there because it was expected
that he would be altogether like his uncle, and because he
had gotten possession of his treasure, but this he distributed
and scattered foolishly. King Henry had gathered together
much gold and silver, yet did he no good for his soul`s
sake with the same. When king Stephen came to Eng-
land, he held an assembly at Oxford ; and there he
seized Roger bishop of Salisbury, and Alexander bishop of
Lincoln, and Roger the chancellor, his nephew, and he kept
them all in prison till they gave up their castles. When the
traitors perceived that he was a mild man, and a soft, and a
good, and that he did not enforce justice, they did all wonder.
They had done homage to him, and sworn oath^, but they no
faith kept; all became forsworn, and broke their allegi-
ance, for every rich man built his castles, and defended them
against him, and they filed the land full of castles. Thejf


greatly oppressed the wretched people by making them work
at these castles, and when the castles were finished they filled
them with devils and evil men. Then they took those wliom
they suspected to have any goods, by night and by day, seizing
both men and women, and they put them in prison for their gold
and silver, and tortured them with pains unspeakable, for never
were any martyrs tormented as these were. They hung some
up by their feet, and smoked them with foul smoke ; some by
tlieir thumbs, or by the head, and they hung burning things on
their feet. They put a knotted string about their heads, and
twisted it till it went into the brain. They put them into dun-
geons wherein were adders and snakes and toads, and thus wore
them out. Some they put into a crucet-house, that is, into
a chest that was short and narrow, and not deep, and they
put sharp stones in it, and crushed the man therein so that
they broke all his limbs. There were hateful and grim
things called Sachenteges in many of the castles, and Avhich
two or three men had enough to do to carry. The Sachen-
tege was made thus : it was fastened to a beam, having a
sharp iron to go round a man`s throat and neck, so that he
might no ways sit, nor lie, nor sleep, but that he must bear
all the iron. Many thousands they exhausted with hunger.
I cannot and I may not tell of all the wounds, and all the
tortures that they inflicted upon the wretched men of this
land ; and this state of things lasted the nineteen years that
vStephen was king, and ever grew worse and worse. They were
continually levying an exaction from the towns, which they
called Tenserie,* and when the miserable inhabitants had no
more to give, then plundered they, and burnt all the towns,
so that well mightest thou walk a whole day`s journey nor
ever shouldest thou find a man seated in a town, or its lands

Then was corn dear, and flesh, and cheese, and butter, for
there was none in the land — wretched men starved with
hunger — some lived on alms who had been erewhile rich :
some fled the country — never was there more misery, and
never acted heathens worse than these. At length they
spared neither church nor churchyard, but they took all that
was valuable therein, and then burned the church and all to-
gether . Neither did they spare the lands of bishops, nor oi
* A payment to the superior lord for protection.


abbats, nor of priests ; but they robbed the monka and tlie
clergy, and every man plundered his neighbour as much as
lie could. If two or three men came riding to a town, all
the township fled before them, and thought that they were
robbers. The bishops and clergy were ever cursing them,
but this to them was nothing, for they were all accursed, and
foi sworn, and reprobate. The earth bare no corn, you
might as well have tilled the sea, for the land was all ruined
by such deeds, and it was said openly that Christ and his
saints slept. These things, and more than we can say,
did we suifer during nineteen years because of our sins.
Through all this evil time the abbat Martin held his abbacy
for twenty years and a half and eight days, with many diffi-
culties: and he provided the monks and guests with all
necessaries, and kept up much alms in the house ; and withal
he wrought upon the church, and annexed thereto lands and
rents, and enriched it greatly, and furnished it with robes :
and he brought the monks into the new monastery on St.
Peter`s day with much pomp. This was in the year 1140
of our Lord`s incarnation, the twenty-third year after the
fire. And he went to Rome and was well received there by
pope Eugenius, from whom he obtained sundry privileges, to
wit, one for all the abbey lands, and another for the lands
that adjoin the monastery, and had he lived longer he meant
to have done as much for the treasurer`s house. And he re-
gained certain lands that powerful men possessed by force ;
he won Cotingham and Easton from William Malduit, who
held Rockingham castle, and from Hugh of Walteville he
won Hirtlingbery, and Stanwick, and sixty shillings yearly
out of Oldwinkle. And he increased the number of monks,
and planted a vineyard, and made many works, and im-
proved the town ; and he was a good monk and a good man,
and therefore God and good men loved him. Now will we
relate some part of what befell in king Stephen`s time. In
his reign the Jews of Norwich bought a Christian child
before Easter, and tortured him with all the torments where-
with our Lord was tortured, and they crucified him on Good
Friday for the love of our Lord, and afterwards buried him.
They believed that this would be kipt secret, but our Lord
made manifest that he was a holy martyr, and the monks took
him and buried him honourably in the m:)nastery and he


performed manifold and wonderful miracles tla-ough the
power of our Lord, anc he is called St. William.

A- 1138. This year David king of Scotland entered this
Land with an immense army resolving to conquer it, and
William earl of Albemarle, to whose charge the king had
committed York, and other trusty men, came against him
with few troops, and fought with him, and they put the king
to flight at the Standard, and slew a great pai`t of his

A. 1140. This year Stephen attempted to take Robert
earl of Gloucester the son of king Henry, but failed, for
Robert was aware of his purpose. After this, in Lent, the
sun and the day were darkened about noon, when men eat,
so that they lighted candles to eat by. This was on the 13th
before the Kalends of April, and the people were greatly as-
tonished. After tliis William archbishop of Canterbury
died, and the king made Theobald, abbat of Bee, archbishoj).
Then there arose a very great war between the king and
Randolph earl of Chester, not because the king did not give
him all that he could ask, even as In. did to all others, but
that the more he gave them, the wor?e they always carried
themselves to him. The earl held Lincoln against the king,
and seized all that belonged to the king there, and the king
went tliither, and besieged him and his brother William de
Romare in the castle : and the earl stole out and went for
Robert earl of Gloucester, and brought him thither with a
large army ; and they fought furiously against their lord on
Candlemas-day, and they took him captive, for his men be-
trayed him and fled, and they led him to Bristol, and there
they put him into prison and close confinement. Now was
all England more disturbed than before, and all evil was in
the land. After this, king Henry`s daughter, who had been
empress of Germany, and was now countess of Anjou, ar-
rived, and she came to London, and the citizens would ha\ e
seized her, but she fled with much loss. Then Henry bishop
of Winchester, king Stephen`s brother, spake with earl
Robert and with the empress, and swore them oatlis that he
never more would hold with the king his brother, and lie
cursed all those that did hold with him, and he said that Le
would give up Winchester to them, and he made them come
thither. But when they were la that place Stephen`s queen


brought up her strength and besieged them, till there was so
great a famine in the town, they could endure it no longer
Then stole they out and lied, and the besiegers were aware
of them, and followed them, and they took Robert earl of
Gloucester and led him to Rochester, and imprisoned him
there : and the empress fled into a monastery. Then wise
men, friends of the king and of the earl, interfered between
them, and they settled tliat the king should be let out of pri-
Boa for the earl, and the earl for the king ; and this was
done. After this the king and earl Randolph were recon-
ciled at Stamford, and they took oaths and pledged their
troth, that neither would betray the other : but this promise
"»ra.`5 set at nought, for the king afterwards seized the earl in
Northampton through wicked counsel, and put him in prison,
but he set him free soon after, through worse, on condition
that he should swear on the cross, and find hostages that he
would give up all his castles. Some he did deliver up, and
others not ; and he did worse than he should have done in
this country. Now was England much divided, some held
with the king and some with the empress, for when the king
was in prison the earls and the great men thought that he
would never more come out, and they treated with the em-
press, and brought her to Oxford, and gave her the town.
When the king was out of prison he heard this, and he took
his army and besieged her in the tower, and they let her
down from the tower by night with ropes, and she stole
away, and she fled : and she went on foot to Wallingford.
After this she went over sea, and all the Normans turned
from the king to the earl of Anjou, some willingly, and some
against their will ; for he besieged them till they gave up
their castles, and they had no help from the king. Then the
king`s son Eustace went to France, and took to wife tlie sis-
ter of the king of France : he thought to obtain Normandy
through this marriage, but little he sped, and that of right,
for he was an evil man, and did more harm than good wher-
ever he went : he spoiled the lands, and laid thereon heavy
taxes : he brought his wife to England, and put her into tho

castle of ;* she was a good woman but she had little

bliss with him, and it was not the will of Christ that h«

* "The MS. is here deficient j bat .... b for * byrig` is discemibltt."


should bear rule long, and he died, and his m« tlier al-^o.
And the earl of Anjou died, and Iiis son Henry succeed. 5 1
him ; and the queen of France was divorced from the kin %
and she went to the young earl Henry and he took her to
wife, and received all Poitou with her. Then he came into
England with a great anny and won castles ; and the king
marched against him with a much larger army, howheit they
did not fight, but the archbishop and wise men went between
them and made a treaty on these terms : that the king sliould
be lord and king while he lived, and that Henry should be
king after his death, and that he should consider him as his
father, and the king him as his son, and that peace and con-
cord should be between them, and in all England. The king,
and the earl, and the bishop, and the earls, and all the great
men swore to observe these and the other conditions that
were then made. The earl was received with much honour
at Winchester` and at London, and all did homage to him, and
^-wore to keep the peace, and it soon became a very good
peace, such as never was in this land. Then the king was
more powerful here than ever he was ; and the earl went
over sea, and all the people loved him, because he did good
justice, and made peace.

A. 1154. This year king Stephen died, and he was buried
with his wife and his son at Faversham ; they had built that
monastery. When the king died the earl was beyond sea,
and no man durst do other than good for very dread of him.
When he came to England he was received with much hon-
our, and was consecrated king at London on the Sunday be-
fore Christmas, and he held a great court there : and on the
same day that Martin abbat of Peterborough should have
gone thither he sickened, and he died on the 4th before the
Nones of January. And that day the monks chose another
abbat from among themselves. He is named William de
Walteville, a good clerk, and a good man, and well beloved
of the king and of all good people : and they buried the
abbat honourably in the church, and soon afterwards the
abbat elect and the monks went to the king at Oxford, and
the king gave him the abbacy, and he departed soon after-
wards to Peterborough, where he remained with the abbat
before he came home. And the king was received at Peter-


borough with great respect, and in full procession ; so he
was also at Ramsey, at Tliorney, and at .... and Spalding,
&nd . . . .*

* The MS. is defective. Ramsey and Thomey are elicited from some
faint traces in the Laud MS. which seem to have escaped the penetration
of Gibson. The last paragraph, if Gibson`s reading be correct, appears to
relate to some building which the abbat and monks of Peterborough had
begun about this time. See Gunton`s History of Peterborough Minster,
and Cont. Hug. Candid, ap. Sparke, pp. 92, 93.



A1x)n, ealdorraan, 22

Acca, bisliDp of Hexham, 31, 33

Acley, synod of, 40

Adrian, emperor of Rome, 5

Ailriau, le,t,`ate, in England, 26

Adrian, pope, 39, 40

Adrian, abbat. See Hadrian

J-`-lla, king of the Sonth Saxons, 8

JFA\a, usurper of Northumbria, 49

^t`.sc, king of Kent, 8

Agelric, bishop of Selsey, 133

Agilbert, bishop, 18, 23

Aidan, bishop of Lindisfarne, IS

Albinus, abbat of St. Augustine`s, xlii

Alhau (St.), 5

Albau`s (St.) monastery, 183

AlCTed, king of Northumbria, 37

Alcuin. See Albinus

Aldhelm, bishop of Sherborne, 31

Aldred, bishop, 118, 123, 126, 129, 132, 134,

Aldulf, archbishop of York, 80, 81, 88, 94
Aldwulf , bishop of Rochester, 82, 33
Alexander, bishop of Lincoln, 190
Alexander, king of Scotland, 180, 191
Alfric, archbishop of Canterbury, 89-06
Alfric, ealdorman, 87
Alfred, king of England, 47-64
Aifrid, king of Deira, 27, 30
Alfuu, bishop of Dunwich, 42
Alfwold, bishop of Sherborne, 85
Alf wold, king of Northumbria, 3-S, 39
Alhmund, bishop of Hexham, 37, `6ii
Alia, king of Northumbria, 10, 12
Alric killed, 42
Alwy, bishop of London, 103
Alwyn, bishop of Winchester, 111, 116, 118
Anlaf Curran, 77

Anlaf, king of Northumbria, 74-76
Anlaf, son of Sihtric, 76
Anna, king of the East Angles, 18
Anselm, archbishop of Canterbuiy, 148,

166, 171, 172, 175-177, 180
Anselm, abbat of Bury St. Edmund`s, 183
Anwind, a Danish king, 53
ABser, bishop of Sherborne, 66
Athelard, archbp. of Canterbury, 40-43
Athelred^ archbp. of Canterbury, 50, 57
Athelstan, bishop orf Hereford, 132
Athelstan, king of Kent, 45, 46
Athelstan, king of Mereia, 72-75
Attila, king of the Huns, 6
Athulf, bishop, 81
Augustine, archbishop of Canterbury,

12, 13

Baccancelde (Beckenham) council, 29

Bagsac, a Danish king, killed, 51

Baldred, king of Kent, 44

Baldulf, bishop of Wliitherne, 40

Baldwin V., earl of Flanders, 120, 1.36

Baldwin VI., earl of Flanders, 1.50

Baldwin VII., eari of Flanders, 182-186

Banihrough (Bebha), a royal city, 10, 170

Bassianus, son of Severus, 5

Bass, mass-priest, 24

Battle Abbey founded, 159, 168

Bede (Venerable), 33

Benedict (Sit.), 8, 9, 1.59

Beonna, abbat of Peterborough, 38

Beori^, earl, 117, 121-123

Beornmod, bishop of Rochester, 42

Beort, ealdorman, 27, 30

Bernard, bishop of St. David`s, 189

Berm-ed, king of Mereia, 36

Bernulf, king of Mereia, 44

Berthwald, archbishop ot Canterbury, 29j

32, 38
Berthwulf, king of Mereia. defeated, 46
Bertric, king of Wessex, 39, 42
Bieda arrives in Britain, 9
Birinus, bishop, 16-18
Blecca, governor of Lincoln, 16
Bosa, bishop of York, 27, 28
Bregowin, archbp. of Canterbury, 36, 37
Brihtege, bishop of Worcester, 111, 112
Brinstan, bishop of Winchester, 73
Britain, 1, 2-6

Brithmar, bishop of Lichfield, 113
Birthwin, bishop of Sherborne, 109, 115,

Britnoth, abbat of Ely, 79
Brocmail, 13

Burhred, king of Mereia, 47-52
Burton abbey, 141

Cadwalla, king of the West Britons, 16
Caedwalla, king of Wessex, 27, 28
Cajsar`s, Julius, invasion, 2
Canterbury` cathedral, 197
Canute, king of England, 102-113
Canute, king of Denmark, 156, 161
Canute, prince of Denmark, 153
Ceawlin or Celin, king of Wessex, 10, 12
Cenbert, father of Cajdwalki, 28
Ceol, king of Wessex, 12
Ceolnoth, archbp. of Canterbury, 45, 50
Cedlred, king of Mereia, 31
Ceolwulf, bishop of Lindsey, 40, 41
Ceolwulf, king of Northumbria, 32, 33,



Ceolwulf, kinc? of Wessex, 12, 13

Oeowirlf, king of Mercia, 43, 44

Cerdio, king of Wessex, 9

Chad, bishop of Lichfield, 23

Ohalk-hythe synod, 39

Cniarles, earl of Flanders, 186, 194

Charles (the Fat), 56, 57

Chertsey monastery, 181

Chester bishopric, 188

Chiche (St. Osythe) monastery, 188

Cissa, king of the South Saxons, 8

Claudius invades Britain, 3

Cloveshoo synod, 34, 44

Coenred, or Kenred, king of Mercia, 3Q,

Coinwalch. See Kenwalk.
Colburga, abbess of Berkeley, 43
Coldingham monastery, 27
Ojlumba, abljat of lona, 11
Conwulf , or Cynewulf, bishop of Lindis-

farne, 33, 38, 39
Crida, king of Mercia, 12
Cuichelm, king of the West Saxons,

Cutha, 11, 12
Cuthbald, abbat, 25, 26
Cuthbert, abp. of Canterbury, 34, 36
Cuthred, king, 17, 18, 23
Cuthred, king of Kent, 43
Cuthred, king of Wessex, 33, 34
Cuthwine defeats the Britons, 12
Cynegils, king of Wessex, 13-17
Cyneward, bishop of Wells, 82, 83
Cynewulf, king of Wessex, 34-39
Cynric, king of Wessex, 9, 10

Danes arrive in England, 39
Daniel, bishop of Winchester, 31-34
David, king of Scotland, 191, 193, 200, 203
Degsastaii, 13

Denewulf , bishop of Winchester, 66
Beusdedit, archbp. of Canterbury, 19-23
Doomsday book compiled, 157
Dudoc, bishop of Wells, 117, 134
Dunstan (St.), archbishop of Canterbury,
nt, 76, 87

E;ul>)ald, king of Kent, 14-17
Eudljcrt, king of Kent, 32, 34
Eadbert, king of Northumbria, 33-30, 37
Eaai)ert Pren, kin? of Kent, 40, 41
E.-idburga, married to Bertric, 39
Eadhed, bishop of Sidnacester, 27
Eaduoth, bishop of Dorchester, 117, 121
Eadsine, archbp. of Canterbury, 112-122
Eafy, high steward, murdered, 94
Ealliard, bishop of Dorchester, 63
Ealstan, bishop of Sherborne, 44, 46, 49
Eaubald I., archbishop of York, 38, 41
Eanbald II., archbishop of York, 41, 42
Eanliert, bishop of Hexham, 43
EaniJed, daughter of king Edwin, 15, 15
Eaiifrid, king of Bernicia, 15, 16

Eanwulf, earl of Somerton, 46
Eappa, priest, 22, 23
Earconbert, king of Kent, 17, 23
Earcongota, daughter of king Earcon-
bert, 17
Eardulf, king of Northumbria, 41, 43
Eata, bishop of Lindisfarne, 27
Ebb, the Frisian, slain, 63
Edgar, king of Mercia, 78-84
Edgar, etheling, 139-144, 151-179
Edgar, king of Scotland, 173, 180
Edgitha, Edward`s queen, 115
Edmund, St., king of East Auglia, 50
Edmund, the son of Edgar, 82
Edmund Ironside, 104-107
Ednoth, bishop of Dorchester, 101, 106
Edred, king, 77, 78, 82
Edric, ealdorman of Mercia, 97, 104, lu7
Edward (the elder), king, 64-73
Edward (the martyr), 60-86
Edward (the confessor), 103, 113-140
Edward, son of Ednmnd, dies, 132-133
Edwin, abbat of Abingdon, 87
Edwin, etheling, drowned, 73
Edwin, king of Northumbria, 13, 15, 16
Edwy, etheling, banished by Canute, lo7
Edwy, king of Wessex, 78
Egljald, abbat of Peterlx)rough, 2b
Egliert, king of Kent, 23, 24
Egbert, king of Wessex, 42-45
Egbert, bishop of York, 33, 37
Egbert^ abbat of lona, 31, 32
Egbert II., bishop of Lindisfarne, 43
Egelric, bp. of Durham, 114, 132, 145, 151
Egelwine, bishop of Durham, 32, 51
Egfert, king of Mercia, 39, 40
Egfrid, king of Northumbria, 24-23
Eleutherius, bishop of Rome, 5
Eleutherius, bishop of Winchester, 24
Elfgar, bishop of Elmham, IDS
Elfhun, bishop of London, 101, 102
Elfric, archbishop of York, 109, 110, J )
Elfric, bishop of Elmham, 112
Elfric, ealdorman, 87, 88, 95
Elfrida, Edgar`s queen, 82
Elfstan, bishop of London, 81, 88
Elfstan, bishop of Wiltshire, 86
Elfsy, al)bat of Peterboroii-ih, 81
Elfsy, bishop of Winchester, 109, 111
Elfward, bishop of London, 116
Elfwin, brother to king Egfrid, 27
Elfwina, queen of Mercia, 69
Elgar, earl of Mercia, 129-133
Elmund, king of Kent, 39
Elphege, bishop of Winchester, 73, 77
Elphege II., arclibishop of Canterbury,

87, 89, 96-101
Elstan, bishop of London, 64
Elswitha, Alfred`s queen, 65
Ely monastery, 24, 79
Emma Elgive, 94, 102, 107, 112, 115, 127
Eorpwald, king of East Anglia, 16
Eric, king of Northumbria, 77



Eric, earl of Northurabria, 105, 107
Ermenred, son of Eadhald, 17
Eriioat, bishop of JUtchester, 145
Eniulf, bishop of Rochester, 1S3, 191
Escwia, king of Wessex, 24, 26
Escwy, bishop of Dorchester, 8S
Ethehird, king of VVessex, 32, 33
EthelbaUl, king of Mercia, 31-36
EtholbaUl, king of Wessex, 46, 43
Ethelberga, daughter of king Ethelbert,

Ethelbert, archbishop of York, 37, S8
Ethelbert. bishop of Whitberne, 38, 42
Ethelbert, king of Kent, 10-14
Echtiibeit il., Kuig ol Kent, 34, 86
Ethelbert, king of East Anglia, 40
Ethelbert, k. of Kent, Essex, Ac, 48, 49
Ethelburga, Ina`s queen, 32
Etheldrida, daughter of king Anna, 24,

27, 79
Ethelfled, lady of Mercia, 66-72
Etlielfrid, king of Northurabria, 12-15
Ethelgar, archbishop of Canterbury, 82,

S6, 87
Ethelnoth, archbishop of Canterbury,

IDS, 112
Ethelred, king of Mercia, 19-31
Ethelred, son of Moll, 37-40
Ethelred [Ethered], king of Wessex, 49-52
Ethelred; king of England, 85-105
Ethelric, king of Northumbria, 12
Ethelric, bishop of Selsey, 112
Ethelswitli, queen of Mercia, 57
Ethehvalch, king of the South Saxons, 23
Ethelwald, prince, 64, 65
Ethelwald, bishop of Lindisfarne, 33
Ethelwald, bishop of Lichfield, 45
Ethelward, king uf Wessex, 32, 33
Ethelwerd, high-steward, slain, 93
Ethelwold, bishop of Winchester, 55, 79,

82, 84, 87
Fthelwulf, king of Wessex, 45-48
` ;ihered, ealdorman of Mercia, 57, 60, 66
"`Iheric, bishop of Dorchester, 111
Eustace II. , earl of Boulogne, 119, 164

Felix, bishop of Dunwich, 17

Fiugale synod, 39

Forthhere, 31, 33

Frithbert, bishop of Hexham, 37

Frithstan, bishop of Winchester, 66, 73

Frithwald, bishop of Whitherne, 37

Gebmund, bishop of Rochester, 29

Gerard, archbishop of York, ISO

Geta, son of Severus, 5

Giso, bishop of Wells, 134

Glastonbury minster, 28, 155

Godfrey, bishop of Bath, 190

Godwin, earl, 111-129

Godwin III., bishop of Rochester, 100

Gosfrith, bishop, 162

Gotltrun, a Danish king, 53, 54, 57

Qratian, emperor, 6
Gregory I., pope, 12
Griffln, Welsh king. 116-135
Grinketel, bishop of .Selsey, 113, 117
Gundulph, l)ishop of Rochester, 145
Gunnilde, bauLshed, 116
Guthfrith, king of Northurabria, 73

Hadrian, abbat of St. Augustine`s, 89

Halfdene, a Danish king, 51-53, 66

Hardecanute, 109, 114

Harold Harfager killed, 138

Harold I., king of England, 111-113

Harold II., 119-141

Hasten invades England, 58-60

Heahmund, bishop of Sherborne, 52

Heandred, bishop of Hexham, 42

Heathfield (Hatfield), 27

Heca, bishop of Selsey, 116-118, 133

Hedda, bishop, 26, 30

Hengist, a Saxon chieftain, 7, 8

Henry de Blois, bishop of Winchester,

197, 203
Henry I., 157, 159, 169, 174, 200
Herbert Losange, bishop of Thetford, 168
Herefrith, bishop of Sebey, 45
Hereward plunders Peterborough, 149,

Herman, bishop of Sherborne, 115, 122,

123, 124
Higbald, bishop of Lindisfarne, 39, 43
Higbert, bishop of Dorchester, 39
Hilda, abbess, `i7
Hingwar and Hubba, 50
Honorius, archbp. of Canterbury, 16, 18
Honorius, pope, 16
Horsa, a Saxon chieftain, 7
Howel, king of West Wales (Cornwall), 73

Ida, king of Northumbria, 10

Ina, king of Wessex, 28-42

Ingild, brother of Ina, 31

lona monastery, 11

Ithamar, bishop of Rochester, 20, 22

Jaruman, bishop of Repton, 20, 22
John (St.), of Beverley, 28, 32
Justus, archbishop of Canterbury, 13

Kenebert, bishop of Winchester, 42
Kenred, king of Mercia. See Coeured.
Keutwin, king of Wessex, 26, 27
Kenulf, king of Mercia, 41, 43
Kenuif, bishop of Winchester, 81, 88, 98
Kenwaik, king of Wessex, 17-18
Kineward, bishop of Winchester, 34
Kyueburg, sister of Wulfliere, 19-22
Kyneswith, sister of Wulfhere, 19-22
Kynsey, archbishop of York, 29-34

Lambert, archbp. of Canterbury, 37-40
Lanfranc, abp. of Canterbury, 145-148,164
Laureutius, archbp. of Canterbury, 14, 15



Leofgar, bishop of Hereford, 132
Leofric, bishop of Devon, 115
Leofric, earl, 115-133
Leofric, bishop of Exeter, 118
Leofsy, bishop of Worcester, 111
Leofwine, bishop of Lichfield, 130
Leo III., pope, 142, 143
Living, archbp. of Canterbury, 101, 108
Living, bishop of Worcester and Glou-
cester, 113, 115-118
Lothen and Irling arrive, 116
Lothere, king of Kent, 23
Lucius, king of the Britons, 5
Ludecan, king of ilercia, 44

Margaret, daughter of Edward, 142, 167
Malcolm IIL, king of Scotland, 142, 151,

Maud, daughter of Malcolm, 175
Maurice, bishop of London, 146, 175, 180
Maximian, emperor, 6
Mellitus, archbp. of Canterbury, 13-15
Merewith, bishop of Somerset, 111
Milred, bishop of Worcester, 37
Moll Ethelwald, king of Northumbria, 36
Morcar, earl of Northumbria, 135-150
Mull, brother of Csedwalla, 27-29

Nero, emperor of Rome, 4

Ninias, bishop, converts the Picts, 11

Nothelm, archbp. of Canterbury, 33, 34

Odda, earl of Devon, 120, 127

Odo, archbishop of Canterbury, 78, 79

Odo, bishop of Bayeux, 155, 160-164

Offa, son of king Si.`,`here, 31

Oflfa, king of Mercia, 36-40, 42

Olave, king of Norway, invades England,

88, 89, 110
Osbern, bishop of Exeter, 145
Osbert, king of Northumbria, 49
Oskytel, a Danish king, 53
Oskytel, archbishop of York, 82
Oslac, ealdorman, 81-84
Osred, king of Northumbria, 31
Osred II., king of Northumbria, 3D, 40
Osric I., king of Deira, 16
Osric 11. , king of Northumbria, 31, 32
Ostritha, queen of Mercia, 30
Oswald, archbishop of York, 81, 87
Oswald, king of Northumbria, 16, 17, 66
Oswiu, king of Deira, 17, 18
Oswin, prince, 37

Oswy (Oswiu), king of Northumbria, 17, 24
Oswulph, king of Northumbria, 36

Palladius, his mission to Ireland, 6
Paulinus, archbishop of York, 13-17
Paul`s (St.) rathedral burnt, 79, 158
Peada, ealdorman, 18
Peada, king of Mercia, 18, 19
Penda. king of Mercia, 15-13
Pelagius, 6

Peter, bishop of Lichfield, 145
Peterborough monastery, 18-26, 38, 50,

80, 128, 142, 150, 195, 198
Petrouilla (St.), 153
Petwine, bishop of Whitherne, 37
Piegmund, archbishop of Canterbury, xiv,

59, 72
Port arrives in England, 9

Ralph, archbp. of Canterbury, 182, 187
Ranulf, bp. of Durham, 173, 175, 176, 196
Reculver monastery, 24
Redwald, king of East Anglia, 15
Rees, the Welshman, 125
Reginald, king of Northumbria, 72, 76
Poheims, synod at, 117
Rol^ert, abp. of Canterbury, 119, 122, 123
Robert Bloet, bishop of Lincoln, 166, 188
Robert, bishop of Lichtield, 183
Robert de Belesme, 173, 170-182
Robert de Limesey, bishop of Lichfield,

Robert II., earl of Flanders, 172, 175-182
Robert II., earl of Northumbria, 169-171
Robert, son of William I., 1.54, 162-193
Pwoger, bishop of Salisbury, 188, 192
Pi.omanus, bishop of Rochester, 14
Romescot, 171

Sabert, king of the East Saxons, 13
Saxon Chronicle, its compilers, v-xix, 1
Sebbi, king of the East Saxons, 22
Selred, king of Essex, slain, 34
Severus, emperor, 5
Sexberga, eldest daughter of king Anna,

17, 24
Sexwulf, bishop of Lichfield, 19-26, 31
Sideman, bishop of Crediton, 85
Sigebert, king of Wessex, 34, 35
Sighard, son of king Sebbi, 22
Sihtric, king of Northumbria, 73
Siric, king of the East Angles, 42
Siric or Sigic, archbishop of Canterbury,

Siward, abp. of Canterbury, 115, 118, 123
Siward, bishop of Rochester, 134
Siward, earl, 115, 126, 129-132
Sparhafoc, bishop of London, 119, 122
Stephen, king, 200-205
Stigand, bishop of Elmham, 114, 115 ;

trans, to Winchester, 116, 118 ; to

Canterbury, 128, 129
Stuff, lord of Isle of Wight, 9, 10
Suebhard, king of Kent, 29
Sweyn, earl, 116-126
Sweyn, king of Denmark, invades

England, 89, 95, 101-103
Sweyn III., king of Denmark, invades

England, 148-153
Swithulf, bishop of Rochester, 63
Swithun, bishop of Wincliester, 49

Tatwine, archbishop of Canterbury, 33



Theobald, archl>ishop of Canterlmry, 203
Theologild, archl)p. of Canterbury, 45
Theodore, archbp. of Canterbury, 22-28
Thedosius the Vouuger, 6
Thomas, abp. of York, 145, 175, 180, 182
Thored, Gunner`s sou, 82, 88
Thurkiil, 9S, 102, 109
Thurkytel, a Danish earl, 63
Thurkytel, sou of Nafan, 105
Till>ert, bishop of Hexham, 38
Thurstan, archl)p. of York, 182, 18C, 180
Tidfrith, bishop of Dunwich, 42
Tobias, bishop of Rochester, xiii, 29, 32
Tosty, 8on of tiodwin, 123-141
Tremerin, bishop of St. David`s, 131
Trumwine, bishop of the Picts, 27
Tuda, bishop of Lindisfarne, 20-23
Tumbert, bishop of Hexham, 27

Ulf, bishop of Dorchester, 121, 123
ITlfkytel, earl of East Anglia, 95, 99
Utred, earl of Northumbria, 101, 105

Valentinian, emperor, 6
Vespasian, emperor, 4
Vortigern, king, 7

Walcher, bishop of Durham, 154
Waleram, earl of Mellent, 190-196
Walkelin, bishop of Winchester, 173
Waltheof, earl of Northumbria, 144, 148,

152, 153
Werburh, Geolred`s queen, 39
Westminster Abbey, 136
Whitgar, lord of Isle of Wight, 9, 10
Whitherne bishopric, 11
Wigbert, bishop of Sherborne, 13

Wighard, bishop-elect, 24
Wight, Isle of, 7, 9, 23, 63, 04
Wigthun, bishop of Wiuchester, 45
Wilfrid, archl)i8hop of York, 20-31
Wilfrid II., archbishop of York, 28
Wilfrid, bishop of ^V`orcester, 34
William, bishop of Durham, 146, 162
William, bishop of Elmham, 146
William Curlioil, archbishop of Canter-
bury, 188, 196, 203
William, earl of Moreton, 73
William, earl of Normandy, 178
William Giffard, bishop ot Winchester,

175, 177, 189, 197
William I. (the Conqueror), 110, 138-161
William, prince, son of Henry I., 183,

185, 186
William Rufus, 146, 161-174
Winchester cathedral, 17
Wini, bishop, 20
Withlaf, king of Mercia, 44, 45
Withred, king of Kent, 29-32
Wulfgar, abbat of Abinirdon, 87-107
Wulfgar, bishop of Wiltshire, 16
Wulfhelm, archbishop of Canterbury, 73
Wulfhere, king of Mercia, 19-26
Wulfnoth, child, 97, 98
Wulfred, archbp. of Canterbury, 43-45
Wulfric, abbat of St. Augustine`s, 115
Wulfstan, archbishop of York, 76-78
Wulfstan, deacon, dies, 79
Wulfsy, bishop of Lichfield, 129
Wulfwy, bishop of Dorchester, 129, 142
Wulstan, bishop of London, 92
Wulstan, bishop of Worcester, 162
Wulstan II., archbishop of York, lOS

York minster, 15

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